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About the Author(s)

Don Fullerton, the Gutgsell Professor of Finance at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has served as the director of the NBER's Environmental and Energy Economics program since its founding in 2007.

Catherine Wolfram Profile.jpg

Catherine Wolfram, the Cora Jane Flood Professor of Business Administration in the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley.

Endnotes

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2. M. J. Roberts and W. Schlenker, "Is Agricultural Production Becoming More or Less Sensitive to Extreme Heat? Evidence from U.S. Corn and Soybean Yields," NBER Working Paper 16308, August 2010 and in D. Fullerton and C. Wolfram, eds., The Design and Implementation of U.S. Climate Policy, Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 2012, pp. 271–82; and W. Schlenker and M. J. Roberts, "Estimating the Impact of Climate Change on Crop Yields: The Importance of Nonlinear Temperature Effects," NBER Working Paper 13799, February 2008.   Go to ⤴︎
3. S. M. Hsiang, "Climate Econometrics," NBER Working Paper 22181, April 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
4. M. Auffhammer, S. M. Hsiang, W. Schlenker and A. Sobel, "Using Weather Data and Climate Model Output in Economic Analyses of Climate Change," NBER Working Paper 19087, May 2013, and Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 7(2), 2013, pp. 181–98.   Go to ⤴︎
5. D. Donaldson, A. Costinot, and C. B. Smith, "Evolving Comparative Advantage and the Impact of Climate Change in Agricultural Markets: Evidence from 1.7 Million Fields around the World," NBER Working Paper 20079, April 2014, and Journal of Political Economy, 124(1), 2016, pp. 205–48.   Go to ⤴︎
6. M. Burke, S. M. Hsiang, and E. Miguel, "Climate and Conflict," NBER Working Paper 20598, October 2014, and the Annual Review of Economics, 7(1), 2015, pp. 577–617.   Go to ⤴︎
7. A. Barreca, K. Clay, O. Deschênes, M. Greenstone, and J. S. Shapiro, "Adapting to Climate Change: The Remarkable Decline in the U.S. Temperature-Mortality Relationship over the 20th Century," NBER Working Paper 18692, January 2013, and Journal of Political Economy, 124(1), 2016, pp. 105–59.   Go to ⤴︎
8. A. Barreca, O. Deschênes, and M. Guldi, "Maybe Next Month? Temperature Shocks, Climate Change, and Dynamic Adjustments in Birth Rates," NBER Working Paper 21681, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
9. T. Deryugina and S. M. Hsiang, "Does the Environment Still Matter? Daily Temperature and Income in the United States," NBER Working Paper 20750, December 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
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12. G. Heal and J. Park, "Feeling the Heat: Temperature, Physiology, and the Wealth of Nations," NBER Working Paper 19725, December 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
13. D.Albouy, W. Graf, R. Kellogg, and H. Wolff, "Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life," NBER Working Paper 18925, March 2013, and Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 3(1), 2016, pp. 205–46.   Go to ⤴︎
14. P. Sinha and M. L. Cropper, "Household Location Decisions and the Value of Climate Amenities," NBER Working Paper 21826, December 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
15. H. A. Klaiber, J. Abbott, and V. K. Smith, "Some Like it (Less) Hot: Extracting Tradeoff Measures for Physically Coupled Amenities," NBER Working Paper 21051, March 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
16. S. Feng, M. Oppenheimer, and W. Schlenker, "Climate Change, Crop Yields, and Internal Migration in the United States," NBER Working Paper 17734, January 2012.   Go to ⤴︎
17. L. H. Goulder and A. Schein, "Carbon Taxes vs. Cap-and-Trade: A Critical Review," NBER Working Paper 19338, August 2013, and Climate Change Economics, 4(3), 2013, pp. 1350010.1–28; M. Ranson and R. Stavins, "Linkage of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems: Learning from Experience," NBER Working Paper 19824, January 2014, and Climate Policy, 16(3), 2016, pp. 284–300; S. P. Holland and A. J. Yates, "Optimal Trading Ratios for Pollution Permit Markets," NBER Working Paper 19780, January 2014, and Journal of Public Economics, 125(C), 2015, pp. 16–27; W. A. Pizer and A. J. Yates, "Terminating Links between Emission Trading Programs," NBER Working Paper 20393, August 2014, and Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 71(C), 2015, pp. 142–59; H. R. Chan, B. A. Chupp, M. L. Cropper, and N. Z. Muller, "The Market for Sulfur Dioxide Allowances: What Have We Learned from the Grand Policy Experiment?," NBER Working Paper 21383, July 2015; and R. Schmalensee and R. Stavins, "Lessons Learned from Three Decades of Experience with Cap-and-Trade," NBER Working Paper 21742, November 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
18. L. H. Goulder, M. A. C. Hafstead, R. C. Williams III, "General Equilibrium Impacts of a Federal Clean Energy Standard," NBER Working Paper 19847, January 2014, and American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 8(2), 2016, pp.186–218.   Go to ⤴︎
19. J. S. Holladay, M. K. Price, and M. Wanamaker, "The Perverse Impact of Calling for Energy Conservation," NBER Working Paper 20706, November 2014, and Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 110(C), 2015, pp. 1–18.   Go to ⤴︎
20. G. Heutel and D. L. Kelly, "Incidence and Environmental Effects of Distortionary Subsidies," NBER Working Paper 18924, March 2013, and published as "Incidence, Environmental, and Welfare Effects of Distortionary Subsidies," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 3(2), 2016, pp. 361–415; S. Li, M. E. Kahn, and J. Nickelsburg, "Public Transit Bus Procurement: The Role of Energy Prices, Regulation, and Federal Subsidies," NBER Working Paper 19964, March 2014, and Journal of Urban Economics, 87(C), 2015, pp. 57–71.   Go to ⤴︎
21. G. Heutel and C. Fischer, "Environmental Macroeconomics: Environmental Policy, Business Cycles, and Directed Technical Change," NBER Working Paper 18794, February 2013, and Annual Review of Resource Economics, 5(1), 2013, pp. 197–210; F. Vona, G. Marin, D. Consoli, and D. Popp, "Green Skills," NBER Working Paper 21116, April 2015; M. Webster, K. Fisher-Vanden, D. Popp, and N. Santen, "Should We Give Up After Solyndra? Optimal Technology R&D Portfolios under Uncertainty," NBER Working Paper 21396, July 2015; and D. Popp, "Using Scientific Publications to Evaluate Government R&D Spending: The Case of Energy," NBER Working Paper 21415, July 2015. Go to ⤴︎
22. G. Heutel, J. Moreno-Cruz, and S. Shayegh, "Solar Geoengineering, Uncertainty, and the Price of Carbon," NBER Working Paper 21355, July 2015; G. Heutel, J. Moreno-Cruz, and S. Shayegh, "Climate Tipping Points and Solar Geoengineering," NBER Working Paper 21589, September 2015; and G. Heutel, J. Moreno-Cruz, and K. Ricke, "Climate Engineering Economics," NBER Working Paper 21711, November 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
23. D. Kellenberg and A. Levinson, "Waste of Effort? International Environmental Agreements," NBER Working Paper 19533, October 2013, and Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 1(1), 2015, pp. 135–69; M. Weitzman, "Can Negotiating a Uniform Carbon Price Help to Internalize the Global Warming Externality?," NBER Working Paper 19644, November 2013, and Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 1(1), 2014, pp. 29–49; and M. Weitzman, "Voting on Prices vs. Voting on Quantities in a World Climate Assembly," NBER Working Paper 20925, February 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
24. J. Elliott and D. Fullerton, "Can a Unilateral Carbon Tax Reduce Emissions Elsewhere? "NBER Working Paper 18897, March 2013, and Resource and Energy Economics, 36(1), pp. 6–21; and K. Baylis, D. Fullerton, and D. H. Karney, "Leakage, Welfare, and Cost-Effectiveness of Carbon Policy," NBER Working Paper 18898, March 2013, and American Economic Review, 103(3), 2013, pp. 332–37.   Go to ⤴︎
25. A. Barreca, K. Clay, O. Deschênes, M. Greenstone, and J. S. Shapiro, "Adapting to Climate Change: The Remarkable Decline in the U.S. Temperature-Mortality Relationship over the 20th Century," NBER Working Paper 18692, January 2013, and Journal of Political Economy, 124(1), 2016, pp. 105–15; H. Kunreuther and E. U. Weber, "Aiding Decision-Making to Reduce the Impacts of Climate Change," NBER Working Paper 19776, January 2014, and Journal of Consumer Policy, 37(3), 2014, pp. 397–411; and M. C. Freeman, B. Groom, and R. Zeckhauser, "Better Predictions, Better Allocations: Scientific Advances and Adaptation to Climate Change," NBER Working Paper 21463, August 2015, and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 373(2055), 2015, pp. 1–24.   Go to ⤴︎
26. D. Bunten and M. E. Kahn, "The Impact of Emerging Climate Risks on Urban Real Estate Price Dynamics," NBER Working Paper 20018, March 2014; M. E. Kahn, R. Walsh, "Cities and the Environment," NBER Working Paper 20503, September 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
27. M. J. Holian, and M. E. Kahn, "The Rise of the Low Carbon Consumer City," NBER Working Paper 18735, January 2013, and published as "Household Carbon Emissions from Driving and Center City Quality of Life," Ecological Economics, 116, 2015, pp. 362–68; M. E. Kahn, N. Kok, and J. M. Quigley, "Commercial Building Electricity Consumption Dynamics: The Role of Structure Quality, Human Capital, and Contract Incentives," NBER Working Paper 18781, February 2013, and published as "Carbon Emissions from the Commercial Building Sector: The Role of Climate, Quality, and Incentives," Journal of Public Economics, 113, 2014, pp. 1–12; S. Zheng, M. E. Kahn, W. Sun, and D. Luo, "Incentivizing China's Urban Mayors to Mitigate Pollution Externalities: The Role of the Central Government and Public Environmentalism," NBER Working Paper No. 18872, March 2013, and published as "Incentives for China's Urban Mayors to Mitigate Pollution Externalities: The Role of the Central Government and Public Environmentalism," Regional Science and Urban Economics, 47, 2014, pp. 61–71; and M. E. Kahn and N. Kok, "Big-Box Retailers and Urban Carbon Emissions: The Case of Wal-Mart," NBER Working Paper 19912, February 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
28. J. Moreno-Cruz and M. S. Taylor, "A Spatial Approach to Energy Economics," NBER Working Paper 18908, March 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
29. G. Heal and A. Millner, "Uncertainty and Decision in Climate Change Economics," NBER Working Paper 18929, March 2013, and Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 8(1), 2014, pp.120–37; G. Heal and A. Millner, "Discounting under Disagreement," NBER Working Paper 18999, April 2013; M. C. Freeman, G. Wagner, and R. Zeckhauser, "Climate Sensitivity Uncertainty: When is Good News Bad?," NBER Working Paper 20900, January 2015, and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 373(2055), 2015, pp. 1–15; K. Gillingham, W. D. Nordhaus, D. Anthoff, G. Blanford, V. Bosetti, P. Christensen, H. McJeon, J. Reilly, and P. Sztorc, "Modeling Uncertainty in Climate Change: A Multi-Model Comparison," NBER Working Paper 21637, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
30. M. Weitzman, "On Modeling and Interpreting the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change," Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(1), 2009, pp. 1–19.   Go to ⤴︎
31. R. J. Barro, "Environmental Protection, Rare Disasters, and Discount Rates," NBER Working Paper 19258, July 2013, and Economica, 82(325), 2014, pp. 1–23.   Go to ⤴︎
32. I. W. R. Martin and R. S. Pindyck, "Averting Catastrophes: The Strange Economics of Scylla and Charybdis," NBER Working Paper 20215, June 2014, and American Economic Review, 105(10), 2015, pp. 2947–85.   Go to ⤴︎
33. R. S. Pindyck, "Climate Change Policy: What Do the Models Tell Us?," NBER Working Paper 19244, July 2013, and Journal of Economic Literature, 51(3), 2014, pp. 860–72; R. S. Pindyck, "The Use and Misuse of Models for Climate Policy," NBER Working Paper 21097, April 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
34. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2014. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Accessible at: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/   Go to ⤴︎
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36. C. R. Knittel, K. Metaxoglou, and A. Trindade, "Natural Gas Prices and Coal Displacement: Evidence from Electricity Markets," NBER Working Paper 21627, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
37. J. A. Cullen and E. T. Mansur, "Inferring Carbon Abatement Costs in Electricity Markets: A Revealed Preference Approach using the Shale Revolution," NBER Working Paper 20795, December 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
38. S. Borenstein, "The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives, and Rebates," NBER Working Paper 21342, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
39. S. Borenstein, J. Bushnell, F. A. Wolak, and M. Zaragoza-Watkins, "Expecting the Unexpected: Emissions Uncertainty and Environmental Market Design," NBER Working Paper 20999, March 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
40. J. B. Bushnell, S. P. Holland, J. E. Hughes, and C. R. Knittel, "Strategic Policy Choice in State-Level Regulation: The EPA's Clean Power Plan," NBER Working Paper 21259, June 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
41. C. R. Knittel, "The Energy-Policy Efficiency Gap: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes?" NBER Working Paper 18685, January 2013, and Tax Policy and the Economy, 28(1), 2014, pp. 97–131.   Go to ⤴︎
42. C. R. Knittel and R. Sandler, "The Welfare Impact of Indirect Pigouvian Taxation: Evidence from Transportation," NBER Working Paper 18849, February 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
43. M. R. Jacobsen and A. A. van Benthem, "Vehicle Scrappage and Gasoline Policy," NBER Working Paper No. 19055, May 2013, and American Economic Review, 105(3), 2015, pp. 1312–38.   Go to ⤴︎
44. K. Ito and J. M. Sallee, "The Economics of Attribute-Based Regulation: Theory and Evidence from Fuel-Economy Standards," NBER Working Paper 20500, September 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
45. M. R. Jacobsen, C. R. Knittel, J. M. Sallee, and A. A. van Benthem, "Sufficient Statistics for Imperfect Externality-Correcting Policies," NBER Working Paper 22063, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
46. S. P. Holland, J. E. Hughes, C. R. Knittel, and N. C. Parker, "Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation," NBER Working Paper 19636, November 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
47. L. W. Davis, "The Environmental Cost of Global Fuel Subsidies," NBER Working Paper 22105, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
48. M. Hoekstra, S. L. Puller, and J. West, "Cash for Corollas: When Stimulus Reduces Spending," NBER Working Paper 20349, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎
49. S. P. Holland, E. T. Mansur, N. Z. Muller, and A. J. Yates, "Environmental Benefits from Driving Electric Vehicles?" NBER Working Paper 21291, June 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
50. McKinsey & Company. 2009. "Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy." Accessible at: https://mck.co/2Jc0TlQ   Go to ⤴︎
51. H. Allcott and R. Sweeney, "The Role of Sales Agents in Information Disclosure: Evidence from a Field Experiment," NBER Working Paper 20048, April 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
52. S. Z. Attari, G. Gowrisankaran, T. Simpson, and S. M. Marx, "Does Information Feedback from In-Home Devices Reduce Electricity Use? Evidence from a Field Experiment," NBER Working Paper 20809, December 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
53. L. W. Davis and G. E. Metcalf, "Does Better Information Lead to Better Choices? Evidence from Energy-Efficiency Labels," NBER Working Paper 20720, November 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
54. R. G. Newell and J. V. Siikamäki, "Nudging Energy Efficiency Behavior: The Role of Information Labels," NBER Working Paper 19224, July 2013, and Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, 1(4), 2014, pp. 555–98.   Go to ⤴︎
55. J. M. Sallee, "Rational Inattention and Energy Efficiency," NBER Working Paper 19545, October 2013, and Journal of Law and Economics, 57(3), 2014, pp. 781–820. Go to ⤴︎
56. R. G. Newell and J. V. Siikamäki, "Individual Time Preferences and Energy Efficiency," NBER Working Paper 20969, February 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
57. A. Levinson, "How Much Energy Do Building Energy Codes Really Save? Evidence from California," NBER Working Paper 20797, December 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
58. M. J. Kotchen, "Do Building Energy Codes Have a Lasting Effect on Energy Consumption? New Evidence From Residential Billing Data in Florida," NBER Working Paper 21398, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
59. S. Houde and J. E. Aldy, "Belt and Suspenders and More: The Incremental Impact of Energy Efficiency Subsidies in the Presence of Existing Policy Instruments," NBER Working Paper 20541, October 2014. Go to ⤴︎
60. H. Allcott and D. Taubinsky, "The Lightbulb Paradox: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments," NBER Working Paper 19713, December 2013. Go to ⤴︎
61. H. Allcott and J. B. Kessler, "The Welfare Effects of Nudges: A Case Study of Energy Use Social Comparisons," NBER Working Paper 21671, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
62. S. Borenstein, "A Microeconomic Framework for Evaluating Energy Efficiency Rebound And Some Implications," NBER Working Paper 19044, May 2013, and The Quarterly Journal of the IAEE's Energy Economics Education Foundation, 36(1), 2015, pp. 1–21.   Go to ⤴︎
63. M. Fowlie, M. Greenstone, and C. Wolfram, "Do Energy Efficiency Investments Deliver? Evidence from the Weatherization Assistance Program," NBER Working Paper 21331, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
64. J. D. Hamilton, "The Changing Face of World Oil Markets," NBER Working Paper 20355, July 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
65. S. T. Anderson, R. Kellogg, and S. W. Salant, "Hotelling Under Pressure," NBER Working Paper 20280, July 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
66. C. Hausman and R. Kellogg, "Welfare and Distributional Implications of Shale Gas," NBER Working Paper 21115, April 2015 and Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 50(1), 2015, pp. 71–139.   Go to ⤴︎
67. R. G. Newell and D. Raimi, "Shale Public Finance: Local Government Revenues and Costs Associated with Oil and Gas Development," NBER Working Paper 21542, September 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
68. J. Feyrer, E. T. Mansur, and B. Sacerdote, "Geographic Dispersion of Economic Shocks: Evidence from the Fracking Revolution," NBER Working Paper 21624, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
69. J. W. Reyes, "Lead Exposure and Behavior: Effects on Antisocial and Risky Behavior among Children and Adolescents," NBER Working Paper 20366, August 2014, and Economic Inquiry, 53(3), 2015, pp. 1580–1605.   Go to ⤴︎
70. T. Chang, J. S. Graff Zivin, T. Gross, and M. J. Neidell, "Particulate Pollution and the Productivity of Pear Packers," NBER Working Paper 19944, February 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
71. E. Herrnstadt and E.Muehlegger, "Air Pollution and Criminal Activity: Evidence from Chicago Microdata," NBER Working Paper 21787, December 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
72. M. L. Anderson, F. Lu, Y. Zhang, J. Yang, and P. Qin, "Superstitions, Street Traffic, and Subjective Well-Being," NBER Working Paper 21551, September 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
73. A. Isen, M. Rossin-Slater, and W. R. Walker, "Every Breath You Take—Every Dollar You'll Make: The Long-Term Consequences of the Clean Air Act of 1970," NBER Working Paper 19858, January 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
74. P. Bharadwaj, J. S. Graff Zivin, M. Gibson, and C. A. Neilson, "Gray Matters: Fetal Pollution Exposure and Human Capital Formation," NBER Working Paper 20662, November 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
75. J. Currie, J. S. Graff Zivin, J. Mullins, and M. J. Neidell, "What Do We Know About Short- and Long-Term Effects of Early Life Exposure to Pollution?" NBER Working Paper 19571, October 2013, and Annual Review of Resource Economics, 6(1), 2014, pp. 217–47.   Go to ⤴︎
76. K. Clay, J. Lewis, and E. Severnini, "Canary in a Coal Mine: Infant Mortality, Property Values, and Tradeoffs Associated with Mid-20th Century Air Pollution," NBER Working Paper 22155, April 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
77. A. Barreca, K. Clay, and J. Tarr, "Coal, Smoke, and Death: Bituminous Coal and American Home Heating," NBER Working Paper 19881, February 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
78. M. Greenstone and B. K. Jack, "Envirodevonomics: A Research Agenda for a Young Field," NBER Working Paper 19426, September 2013, and Journal of Economic Literature, 53(1), 2015, pp. 5–42.   Go to ⤴︎
79. S. Zheng, C. Sun, and M. E. Kahn, "Self-Protection Investment Exacerbates Air Pollution Exposure Inequality in Urban China," NBER Working Paper 21301, June 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
80. E. Duflo, M. Greenstone, R. Pande, and N. Ryan, "Truth-telling by Third-party Auditors and the Response of Polluting Firms: Experimental Evidence from India," NBER Working Paper 19259, July 2013, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128(4), 2013, pp. 1499–1545; and E. Duflo, M. Greenstone, R. Pande, and N. Ryan, "The Value of Regulatory Discretion: Estimates from Environmental Inspections in India," NBER Working Paper 20590, October 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
81. A. Harrison, B. Hyman, L. Martin, and S. Nataraj, "When Do Firms Go Green? Comparing Price Incentives with Command and Control Regulations in India," NBER Working Paper 21763, November 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
82. M. E. Kahn, P. Li, and D. Zhao, "Pollution Control Effort at China's River Borders: When Does Free Riding Cease?" NBER Working Paper 19620, November 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
83. H. Allcott, A. Collard-Wexler, and S. D. O'Connell, "How Do Electricity Shortages Affect Industry? Evidence from India," NBER Working Paper 19977, March 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
84. N. Chichilnisky-Heal and G. Heal, "Host-MNC Relations in Resource-Rich Countries," NBER Working Paper 21712, November 2015. Go to ⤴︎
85. K. Lee, E. Brewer, C. Christiano, F. Meyo, E. Miguel, M. Podolsky, J. Rosa, and C. Wolfram, "Barriers to Electrification for 'Under Grid' Households in Rural Kenya," NBER Working Paper 20327, July 2014, and published as "Electrification for 'Under Grid' households in Rural Kenya," Development Engineering, 1, 2015, pp. 26–35.   Go to ⤴︎
86. R. Chugh and M. L. Cropper, "The Welfare Effects of Fuel Conservation Policies in the Indian Car Market," NBER Working Paper 20460, September 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
87. B. K. Jack, P. Oliva, C. Severen, E. Walker, and S. Bell, "Technology Adoption Under Uncertainty: Take-Up and Subsequent Investment in Zambia," NBER Working Paper 21414, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
88. M. J. Kotchen and N. K. Negi, "Cofinancing in Environment and Development: Evidence from the Global Environment Facility," NBER Working Paper 21139, May 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
89. G. Miller and A. M. Mobarak, "Gender Differences in Preferences, Intra-Household Externalities, and Low Demand for Improved Cookstoves," NBER Working Paper 18964, April 2013. Go to ⤴︎

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