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This figure is a two-panel vertical bar graph titled, Incentives and Contractor Performance in Weatherization Assistance Program. The following description is for the left-side panel. The panel is labeled, Building Envelope tightness.  The y-axis is labeled, additional reductions in CFM50 relative to untreated jobs. It ranges from 0 to 120, increasing in increments of 20.  There are two bars: high treat and low treat. The high treat bar has a value of around 115 while the low treat is around 65.  The follow

Contractor Incentives Improve Performance of Weatherization Program


In a program designed to save energy by promoting home weatherization among low-income households, compensating contractors based on the amount of natural gas saved increased the average benefit by 24 percent. Peter ChristensenPaul Francisco, and Erica Myers report this finding in Incentive Pay and Social Returns to Worker Effort in Public Programs: Evidence from the Weatherization Assistance Program (NBER Working Paper 31322).

The researchers partnered with the Illinois Home Weatherization Assistance Program and studied projects that were undertaken in 2018 and 2019. Jobs were randomly assigned contracts of three types: high incentive, low incentive...

NBER Appoints 54 Research Associates, 3 Faculty Research Fellows

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The NBER Board of Directors appointed 54 research associates, all of whom were promoted from faculty research fellow status, at the board’s September 2023 meeting. Research associates must be tenured faculty members at North American colleges or universities; their appointments are recommended to the board by directors of the NBER’s 20 research programs, typically after consultation with a steering committee of leading scholars. The new research associates are affiliated with 28 different colleges and universities; they received graduate training at 25 different institutions.

In addition, NBER President James Poterba appointed three new faculty research fellows, typically junior scholars, also on the advice of program directors and their steering committees. The names and university affiliations of the new…

From the NBER Bulletin on Health

What Accounts for the Rise in Suicide Rates in the US? Figure

What Accounts for the Rise in Suicide Rates in the US?


Annual suicide deaths per 100,000 people in the US increased gradually from 10 in 1950 to 13 in 1970 then experienced a long decline, reaching a trough at 10 in 2000. Between 2000 and 2020, however, the US suicide rate exhibited an upward trend.  

Two aspects of this increase are especially notable. The first is its speed. Between 2000 and 2020, the suicide rate rose from 10 per 100,000 to just over 14 — a 40 percent increase in only 20 years, and enough to temporarily catapult suicide into the top 10 causes of death in the US. The second was the absence of other countries experiencing...

Esther George, William M. Lewis, Jr., and Laurence C. Morse were elected as at-large members of the NBER Board of Directors at the board’s meeting on September 11 2023.
(L to R) Esther George, William M. Lewis, Jr., and Laurence C. Morse

Three New Directors Elected to NBER Board

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Esther George, William M. Lewis Jr., and Laurence C. Morse were elected members at large of the NBER Board of Directors at the board’s September 11 meeting.

From the NBER Bulletin on Retirement and Disability

This is a vertical bar graph titled Fraction of Couples Who Increase Employer Match by Reallocating Retirement Contributions. It is subtitled, In real couples vs. synthetic couples with randomly assigned partners. The y-axis represents a fraction, given in percentages. It ranges from 0 to 40 percent, increasing in increments of 10.  The x-axis is has 3 labels that read from left to right: Real couples, Randomly paired married persons, Randomly paired single persons.

Do Married Couples Coordinate Their Retirement Savings Efficiently?


As nearly two-thirds of US civilian workers have access to an employer-sponsored defined contribution (DC) plan, workers’ decisions as to whether and how much to contribute to their DC plans have important consequences for their retirement security. Most employers offer a “match,” where the employer’s contribution to the plan depends on the employee’s contribution, though the match rate and the amount of contributions eligible to be matched vary across employers. An employer match creates a large and transparent incentive to contribute by offering a guaranteed return on the worker’s contribution.

In married couples where both workers have access to DC plans, the match schedules of both plans are relevant for retirement savings decisions. For a given amount of total…

From the NBER Reporter: Research, program, and conference summaries

 Evaluating Urban Transportation Policies Figure

Evaluating Urban Transportation Policies


Traffic congestion poses a significant challenge in urban centers, especially in fast-growing emerging economies where rapid urbanization and increased travel demand have outpaced road infrastructure and regulations. Longer travel times and worsened air quality resulting from congestion hinder mobility and urban development while reducing the overall quality of life. In the 2018 TomTom Traffic Index, which is based on real-time GPS traffic data from 403 cities in 56 countries, the 10 most congested cities were all in developing and emerging economies. In these cities, commuters spent over 200 hours of extra travel time per year relative to when transport was flowing freely.

Local governments have implemented a range of policies to address traffic congestion, targeting both the demand and supply…

From the NBER Bulletin on Entrepreneurship

Gender and Race Gaps on the Path to Startup Success


Depending on the data source, 12 and 28 percent of high-growth startups are run by women, although women make up 45 percent of the overall labor force. Fewer than 10 percent of entrepreneurs are Black. In Race and Gender in Entrepreneurial Finance (NBER Working Paper 30444), Michael Ewens surveys available data and presents a framework for assessing gender and race gaps in startup founding, financing, and growth.  

The startup path is complex: individual entrepreneurs must secure financing, grow, and successfully exit. In addition to the initial decision to launch a startup, decisions on firm type, scale, industry, location, and long-term…

Featured Working Papers

Daniel GreenwaldSabrina T. HowellCangyuan LiEmmanuel Yimfor find that the algorithms that regulators and analysts use to predict race, typically based on last name and address, have large errors in classifying Black business loan applicants.

Claire E. BoonePablo A. CelhayPaul Gertler, and Tadeja Gracner find that reminders of primary care appointments increased preventative care visits by about 10%, leading to improved medication adherence and more timely hospitalizations among hypertension and type 2 diabetes patients.

In rich countries, urban travel is about 50% faster than in poor countries. Prottoy A. AkbarVictor CoutureGilles Duranton, and Adam Storeygard find, this is primarily because cities in richer countries have more major roads and wider land areas which increases uncongested speeds but do not reduce congestion.

Target Date Funds were a stabilizing force in US equity markets during the COVID-19 pandemic, generating contrarian investment flows across asset classes, find Jonathan A. Parker and Yang Sun.

Communication interventions targeting low-income adults in Ghana during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a 9.8% decrease in mental distress, according to Francis Annan and Belinda Archibong.

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Through a partnership with the University of Chicago Press, the NBER publishes the proceedings of four annual conferences as well as other research studies associated with NBER-based research projects.

Research Spotlights

NBER researchers discuss their work on subjects of wide interest to economists, policymakers, and the general public. Recordings of more-detailed presentations, keynote addresses, and panel discussions at NBER conferences are available on the Lectures page.
Research Spotlight
An investigation of the role of anonymity in online communication and social media posting.    ...
Research Spotlight
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Conrad Miller of the University of California, Berkeley,...
Research Spotlight
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Trevon Logan of The Ohio State University, who directs the...
Research Spotlight
A growing fraction of US medical care is delivered through integrated healthcare systems that include many medical...
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