Skip to main content

National Bureau of Economic Research

Conducting and disseminating nonpartisan economic research

Latest from the NBER

A research summary from the monthly NBER Digest

Childcare Subsidies and Parental Earnings Figure

Childcare Subsidies and Parental Earnings


In the decade after their first child’s birth, Canadian mothers’ earnings decline by 25 percent relative to the earnings of fathers, Sencer KarademirJean-William P. Laliberté, and Stefan Staubli estimate. The unequal distribution of childcare responsibilities is a likely contributor to this gap, with 38 percent of women aged 24–35 providing over 30 hours of unpaid childcare per week compared to 11 percent of men.

In The Multigenerational Impact of Children and Childcare Policies (NBER Working Paper 32204), the researchers examine how formal childcare subsidies affect the labor market effects of childbirth. Using data from the Intergenerational Income Database, they consider new parents who were born between

From the NBER Bulletin on Entrepreneurship

 Immigration Policy and Entrepreneurs’ Choice of Startup Location figure

Immigration Policy and Entrepreneurs’ Choice of Startup Location


Immigrants play a significant role in the entrepreneurial landscape. In the United States, immigrants are 80 percent more likely to start businesses than native-born Americans. More than half of America's billion-dollar startup companies trace their roots to immigrant founders. There is limited research, however, on the factors that influence immigrants' decisions about where to locate their startup businesses. 

In The Effect of Immigration Policy on Founding Location Choice: Evidence from Canada's Start-up Visa Program (NBER Working Paper 31634), Saerom Lee and Britta Glennon investigate the impact of Canada's Start-up Visa Program on US-based…

From the NBER Reporter: Research, program, and conference summaries

Program Report: International Finance and Macroeconomics Figure

Program Report: International Finance and Macroeconomics, 2024


Affiliates of the International Finance and Macroeconomics (IFM) Program study financial interactions among nations, including cross-border capital flows, exchange rates, responses to global financial crises, and the transmission of economic shocks. Rather than attempting to summarize the more than 1,000 working papers these researchers have distributed since the last program report in 2015, we focus here on three issues that have attracted substantial research attention from this group: impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, global supply chain shocks, and the privileged position of the US dollar in global asset...

From the NBER Bulletin on Health


C-section Rates and Birth Outcomes


Cesarean section (C-section) is the most common surgical procedure performed in the United States. Sarah RobinsonHeather Royer, and David Silver report that C-section rates for first-time, singleton births increased from 24 percent to 32 percent between 1989 and 2017 alongside significant changes in medical practices during this period. In 2001, for example, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists began recommending C-sections for breech births. The rising rate of C-sections has sparked a debate about whether this procedure is being overused. 

In Geographic Variation in Cesarean Sections in the United States: Trends, Correlates, and Other Interesting Facts (NBER Working Paper 31871), the researchers study how cross-county differences in C-section usage correlate with infant and maternal...

From the NBER Bulletin on Retirement and Disability

Social Security and Retirement around the World

Social Security and Retirement around the World


Over the past 25 years, labor force participation at older ages has increased dramatically. In the 12 countries that are part of the NBER’s International Social Security (ISS) project, participation among those aged 60 to 64 has risen by an average of over 20 percentage points for men and over 25 percentage points for women.

In The Effects of Reforms on Retirement Behavior: Introduction and Summary (NBER Working Paper 31979), authors Axel Börsch-Supan and Courtney Coile report on the most recent work of the ISS project. The current analysis builds on previous project phases which showed that changes in health and education could…

Featured Working Papers

Johannes HoelzemannGustavo MansoAbhishek Nagaraj, and Matteo Trancherow discover that when data shine a light on attractive but not optimal projects, this can  narrow the breadth of exploration and lower ultimate payoffs. 

Except for workers in “gig” occupations, Amanda Y. AganAndrew GarinDmitri K. KoustasAlexandre Mas, and Crystal Yang find little effect of criminal record remediation laws on employment opportunities. 

Michigan’s 2015 increase funding for its in Career and Technical Education (CTE) program doubled program completion rates but had very little impact on enrollment numbers, Thomas GoldringBrian JacobDaniel Kreisman, and Michael Ricks find. 

In 1950 and 1960, a time when help-wanted advertisements were divided into male and female sections,  female-owned employment agencies specialized in vacancies for women, expanding the access of female jobseekers to more highly skilled occupations and higher wages, Jennifer Hunt and Carolyn Moehling find.

Cultural individualism accounts for about one-third of cross-country variation in work from home (WFH) rates.  Countries with high individualism levels have high WFH rates, Pablo ZarateMathias DollsSteven J. DavisNicholas BloomJose Maria Barrero, and Cevat Giray Aksoy find. 

View all

Books & Chapters

Through a partnership with the University of Chicago Press, the NBER publishes the proceedings of four annual conferences as well as other research studies associated with NBER-based research projects.

Research Spotlights

NBER researchers discuss their work on subjects of wide interest to economists, policymakers, and the general public. Recordings of more-detailed presentations, keynote addresses, and panel discussions at NBER conferences are available on the Lectures page.

Research Spotlight
An investigation of the role of anonymity in online communication and social media posting.    ...
Research Spotlight
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Conrad Miller of the University of California, Berkeley,...
Research Spotlight
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Trevon Logan of The Ohio State University, who directs the...
Research Spotlight
A growing fraction of US medical care is delivered through integrated healthcare systems that include many medical...
Sign-Up for New This Week: The Weekly Announcement of New NBER Working Papers
Learn More about NBER Research Activities