New research by NBER affiliates, circulated prior to peer review for discussion and comment. NBER Working Papers may not offer policy recommendations or normative judgments about policies, but may report analytic results on the effects of policies. The NBER distributes more than 1,200 Working Papers each year.
Papers issued more than 18 months ago are open access. More recent papers are available without charge to affiliates of subscribing academic institutions, employees of NBER Corporate Associates, government employees in the US, journalists, and residents of low-income countries. All visitors to the NBER website may access up to 3 working papers each year without a subscription.
The NBER endeavors to make its web content accessible to all. To request an accessible version of a Working Paper, please contact email@example.com and one will be provided within 5 business days.
The free New This Week email, which contains the abstracts of each new batch of working papers, is distributed every Monday morning. Account log-in or creation is required.
More from NBER
In addition to working papers, the NBER disseminates affiliates’ latest findings through a range of free periodicals — the NBER Reporter, the NBER Digest, the Bulletin on Retirement and Disability, the Bulletin on Health, and the Bulletin on Entrepreneurship — as well as online conference reports, video lectures, and interviews.