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About the Author(s)

Francesco Trebbi
Francesco Trebbi, University of California, Berkeley

Francesco Trebbi is the B.T. Rocca Jr. Chair of International Trade at the Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley. Codirector of the NBER’s Political Economy Program.

Ebonya Washington
Ebonya L. Washington, Columbia University

Ebonya Washington is the Laurans A. and Arlene Mendelson Professor of Economics and a professor of international and public affairs at Columbia University. Codirector of the NBER’s Political Economy Program.


1. Democracy Does Cause Growth,” Acemoglu D, Naidu S, Restrepo P, Robinson J. NBER Working Paper 20003, March 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
2.  “Moral Values and Voting,” Enke B. NBER Working Paper 24268, October 2019. Go to ⤴︎
3.  “Overconfidence in Political Behavior,” Ortoleva P, Snowberg E. NBER Working Paper 19250, July 2013. Go to ⤴︎
4. "Cross-Country Trends in Affective Polarization,” Boxell L, Gentzkow M, Shapiro J. NBER Working Paper 26669, November 2021. Go to ⤴︎
5. Partisan Fertility and Presidential Elections,” Dahl G, Lu R, Mullins W. NBER Working Paper 29058, December 2021. Go to ⤴︎
6. Politics at Work,” Colonnelli E, Pinho Neto V, Teso E. NBER Working Paper 30182, June 2022. Go to ⤴︎
7. Globalization, Government Popularity, and the Great Skill Divide,” Aksoy Cevat, Guriev S, Treisman D. NBER Working Paper 25062, September 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
8.  “Globalization and Its (Dis-)Content: Trade Shocks and Voting Behavior,” Dippel C, Gold R, Heblich S. NBER Working Paper 21812, December 2015. Go to ⤴︎
9. Importing Political Polarization? The Electoral Consequences of Rising Trade Exposure,” Autor D, Dorn D, Hanson G, Majlesi K. NBER Working Paper 22637, December 2017. Go to ⤴︎
10. Skill of the Immigrants and Vote of the Natives: Immigration and Nationalism in European Elections 2007–2016,” Moriconi S, Peri G, Turati R. NBER Working Paper 25077, September 2018. Go to ⤴︎
11. Immigration and Preferences for Redistributioon in Europe,” Alesina A, Murard E, Rapoport H. NBER Working Paper 25562, February 2019. Go to ⤴︎
12. Immigration and Redistribution,” Alesina A, Miano A, Stantcheva S. NBER Working Paper 24733, March 2022. Go to ⤴︎
13. "Race and Redistribution in the United States: An Experimental Analysis,” Akesson J, Hahn R, Metcalfe R, Rasolly I. NBER Working Paper 30426, September 2022. Go to ⤴︎
15.  “Insiders and Outsiders: Local Ethnic Politics and Public Goods Provision,” Munshi K, Rosenzweig M. NBER Working Paper 21720, November 2015. Go to ⤴︎
16. Minority Representation in Local Government,” Beach B, Jones D, Twinam T, Walsh R. NBER Working Paper 25192, September 2019. Go to ⤴︎
17. Minority Underrepresentation in U.S. Cities,” Ricca F, Trebbi F. NBER Working Paper 29738, February 2022. Go to ⤴︎
18.  “Strict ID Laws Don’t Stop Voters: Evidence from a U.S. Nationwide Panel, 2008–2018,” Cantoni E, Pons V. NBER Working Paper 25522, May 2021. Go to ⤴︎
19. Local Economic and Political Effects of Trade Deals: Evidence from NAFTA,” Choi J, Kuziemko I, Washington E, Wright G. NBER Working Paper 29525, November 2021. Go to ⤴︎
20. Biases in Information Selection and Processing: Survey Evidence from the Pandemic,” Faia E, Fuster A, Pezone V, Zafar B. NBER Working Paper 28484, February 2021. Go to ⤴︎
21.  “Bias in Cable News: Persuasion and Polarization,” Martin G, Yurukoglu A. NBER Working Paper 20798, June 2016. Go to ⤴︎
22.  “Electoral Competition with Fake News,” Grossman G, Helpman E. NBER Working Paper 26409, October 2019. Go to ⤴︎
23.  “A Model of Online Misinformation,” Acemoglu D, Ozdaglar A, Siderius J. NBER Working Paper 28884, January 2022. Go to ⤴︎
24. "Learning from Shared News: When Abundant Information Leads to Belief Polarization,” Bowen R, Dmitriev D, Galperti S. NBER Working Paper 28465, March 2022. Go to ⤴︎
26. Is the Internet Causing Political Polarization? Evidence from Demographics,” Boxell L, Gentzkow M, Shapiro J. NBER Working Paper 23258, March 2017. Go to ⤴︎
27. The Effect of Social Media on Elections: Evidence from the United States,” Fujiwara T, Muller K, Schwarz C. NBER Working Paper 28849, May 2021. Go to ⤴︎
28.  “Bureaucracy and Development,” Besley T, Burgess R, Khan A, Xu G. NBER Working Paper 29163, August 2021. Go to ⤴︎
29. "State Capacity and Economic Development: A Network Approach,” Acemoglu D, Garcia-Jimeno C, Robinson J. NBER Working Paper 19813, January 2014. Go to ⤴︎
30. The Historical State, Local Collective Action, and Economic Development in Vietnam,” Dell M, Lane N, Querubin P. NBER Working Paper 23208, March 2017. Go to ⤴︎
31.  “How Merchant Towns Shaped Parliaments: From the Norman Conquest of England to the Great Reform Act,” Angelucci C, Meraglia S, Voigtländer N. NBER Working Paper 23606, July 2017. Go to ⤴︎
32. Political Power, Elite Control, and Long-Run Development: Evidence from Brazil,” Ferraz C, Finan F, Martinez-Bravo M. NBER Working Paper 27456, June 2020. Go to ⤴︎
33. The Dictator’s Inner Circle,” Francois P, Rainer I, Trebbi F. NBER Working Paper 20216, June 2014. Go to ⤴︎
35. The Perils of High-Powered Incentives: Evidence from Colombia’s False Positives,” Acemoglu D, Fergusson L, Robinson J, Romero D, Vargas J. NBER Working Paper 22617, March 2018. Go to ⤴︎
36. Government Decentralization under Changing State Capacity: Experimental Evidence from Paraguay,” Dal Bó E, Finan F, Li N, Schechter L. NBER Working Paper 24879, July 2019. Go to ⤴︎
37.  “The Allocation of Authority in Organizations: A Field Experiment with Bureaucrats,” Bandiera O, Best M, Khan A, Prat A. NBER Working Paper 26733, August 2021. Return to Text Go to ⤴︎
38.  “The Mortality Cost of Political Connections,” Fisman R, Wang Y. NBER Working Paper 21266, August 2015. Go to ⤴︎
39.  “Isolated Capital Cities, Accountability and Corruption: Evidence from US States,” Campante F, Do Q. NBER Working Paper 19027, May 2013. Go to ⤴︎
40. Combating Political Corruption with Policy Bundles,” Finan F, Mazzocco M. NBER Working Paper 28683, April 2021. Go to ⤴︎
41.  “Priors Rule: When Do Malfeasance Revelations Help or Hurt Incumbent Parties?” Arias E, Larreguy H, Marshall J, Querubin P. NBER Working Paper 24888, August 2018. Go to ⤴︎
42. The Real State: Inside the Congo’s Traffic Police Agency,” Sanchez de la Sierra R, Titeca K, Xie H, Nkuku A, Lameke A. NBER Working Paper 30258, July 2022. Go to ⤴︎
43. Market Structure and Extortion: Evidence from 50,000 Extortion Payments,” Brown Z, Montero E, Schmidt-Padilla C, Sviatschi M. NBER Working Paper 28299, February 2023. Go to ⤴︎
44. The Political Economy of Anti-Bribery Enforcement,” Cohen L, Li B. NBER Working Paper 29624, December 2021. Go to ⤴︎
45. Social Proximity and Bureaucrat Performance: Evidence from India,” Xu G, Bertrand M, Burgess R. NBER Working Paper 25389, October 2018. Go to ⤴︎
46.  “From Lapdogs to Watchdogs: Random Auditor Assignment and Municipal Fiscal Performance,” Vannutelli S. NBER Working Paper 30644, November 2022. Go to ⤴︎
47. Population and Civil War,” Acemoglu D, Fergusson L, Johnson S. NBER Working Paper 23322, April 2017. Go to ⤴︎
48.  “Diversity and Conflict,” Arbatli C, Ashrar Q, Galor O, Klemp M. NBER Working Paper 21079, September 2019. Go to ⤴︎
49. "The Economic Origins of Conflict in Africa,” McGuirk E, Burke M. NBER Working Paper 23056, April 2020. Go to ⤴︎
51. Rebel Governance and Development: The Persistent Effects of Distrust in El Salvador,” Bandiera A, Dinarte Diaz L, Jimenez J, Rozo S, Sviatschi M. NBER Working Paper 30488, January 2023. Go to ⤴︎
52. What Explains the Flow of Foreign Fighters to ISIS?” Benmelech E, Klor E. NBER Working Paper 22190, April 2016. Go to ⤴︎
53. Insurgent Learning,” Trebbi F, Weese E, Wright A, Shaver A. NBER Working Paper 23475, June 2017. Go to ⤴︎
54. Measuring the Tolerance of the State: Theory and Application to Protest,” Andirin V, Neggers Y, Shadmehr M, Shapiro J. NBER Working Paper 30167, June 2022. Go to ⤴︎
55. Climate and Conflict,” Burke M, Hsiang S, Miguel E. NBER Working Paper 20598, October 2014. Go to ⤴︎
56. Winter Is Coming: The Long-Run Effects of Climate Change on Conflict, 1400–1900,” Iyigun M, Nunn N, Qian N. NBER Working Paper 23033, January 2017. Go to ⤴︎
57. Web of Power: How Elite Networks Shaped War and Politics in China,” Bai Y, Jia R, Yang J. NBER Working Paper 28667, August 2022. Go to ⤴︎
58. The Second World War, Inequality and the Social Contract in Britain,” Heldring L, Robinson J, Whitfill P. NBER Working Paper 29677, February 2022. Go to ⤴︎
59.  “Nation-Building, Nationalism and Wars,” Alesina A, Reich B, Riboni A. NBER Working Paper 23435, May 2017. Go to ⤴︎
60. Can War Foster Cooperation?” Bauer M, Blattman C, Chytilova J, Henrich J, Miguel E, Mitts T. NBER Working Paper 22312, June 2016. Go to ⤴︎
61.  “Concessions, Violence, and Indirect Rule: Evidence from the Congo Free State,” Lowes S, Montero E. NBER Working Paper 27893, October 2020. Go to ⤴︎
62.  “The Paradox of Civilization: Pre-Institutional Sources of Security and Prosperity,” Dal Bó E, Hernandez P, Mazzuca S. NBER Working Paper 21829, December 2015. Go to ⤴︎
63.  “The Political Economy of Growth: A Critical Survey of the Recent Literature,” Alesina A, Perotti R. The World Bank Economic Review 8(3), September 1994, pp. 351–371. Go to ⤴︎



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