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About the Author(s)

Janet Currie

Janet Currie is the Henry Putnam Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University and the codirector of Princeton's Center for Health and Wellbeing. She is the codirector of the NBER Program on Children with Anna Aizer.

Aizer headshot

Anna Aizer is an associate professor of economics and public policy at Brown University. She is the codirector of the NBER Program on Children with Janet Currie.

Endnotes

1. D. Almond, B. Mazumder, and R. van Ewijk, "Fasting During Pregnancy and Children's Academic Performance," NBER Working Paper 17713, December 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
2. J. Ferrie and K. Rolf, "Socioeconomic Status in Childhood and Health After Age 70: A New Longitudinal Analysis for the U.S., 1895-2005," NBER Working Paper 17016, May 2011, and Explorations in Economic History, 48(4), 2011, pp. 445-60.   Go to ⤴︎
3. D. Autor, D. Figlio, K. Karbownik, J. Roth, and M. Wasserman, "Family Disadvantage and the Gender Gap in Behavioral and Educational Outcomes," NBER Working Paper 22267, May 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
4. A. Aizer, S. Eli, J. Ferrie, and A. Lleras-Muney, "The Long Term Impact of Cash Transfers to Poor Families," NBER Working Paper 20103, May 2014, and American Economic Review, 106(4), 2016, pp. 935–71.   Go to ⤴︎
5. F. Anderson, J.C. Haltiwanger, M.J. Kutzbach, G.E. Palloni, H.O. Pollakowski, and D. Weinberg, "Childhood Housing and Adult Earnings: A Between-Siblings Analysis of Housing Vouchers and Public Housing," NBER Working Paper 22721, October 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
6. G.B. Dahl, A.R. Kostol and M. Mogstad, "Family Welfare Cultures," NBER Working Paper 19237, July 2013, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, 129(4), 2014, pp. 1711-52.   Go to ⤴︎
7. J. Ludwig, G.J. Duncan, L.A. Gennetian, L.F. Katz, R.C. Kessler, J.R. Kling, and L. Sanbonmatsu, "Long-Term Neighborhood Effects on Low-Income Families: Evidence from Moving to Opportunity," NBER Working Paper 18772, February 2013, and American Economic Review, 103(3), 2013, pp. 226-31.   Go to ⤴︎
8. R. Chetty, N. Hendren, and L.F. Katz, "The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment," NBER Working Paper 21156, May 2015, and American Economic Review, 106(4), 2016, pp. 855–902.   Go to ⤴︎
9. R. Chetty, N. Hendren, P. Kline, and E. Saez, "Where is the Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Inter-generational Mobility in the United States," NBER Working Paper 19843, January 2014, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(4), 2014, pp. 1553-623.   Go to ⤴︎
10. H. Hoynes, D.W. Schanzenbach, and D. Almond, "Long Run Impacts of Childhood Access to the Safety Net," NBER Working Paper 18535, November 2012, and American Economic Review, 106(4), 2016, pp. 903-34.   Go to ⤴︎
11. G. Conti, J.J. Heckman, and R. Pinto, "The Effects of Two Influential Early Childhood Interventions on Health and Healthy Behaviors," NBER Working Paper 21454, August 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
12. J.J. Heckman, R. Pinto, and P.A. Savelyev, "Understanding the Mechanisms through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes," NBER Working Paper 18581, November 2012, and American Economic Review, 103(6), 2013, pp. 2052-86.   Go to ⤴︎
13. M. Baker, J. Gruber, and K. Mulligan, "Non-Cognitive Deficits and Young Adult Outcomes: The Long-Run Impacts of a Universal Child Care Program," NBER Working Paper 21571, September 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
14. J. Currie, S. Decker, and W. Lin, "Has Public Health Insurance for Older Children Reduced Disparities in Access to Care and Health Outcomes?" NBER Working Paper 14173, July 2008, and Journal of Health Economics, 27(6), 2008, pp. 1567–81.   Go to ⤴︎
15. B.D. Meyer and L.R. Wherry, "Saving Teens: Using a Policy Discontinuity to Estimate the Effects of Medicaid Eligibility," NBER Working Paper 18309, August 2012.   Go to ⤴︎
16. D.W. Brown, A.E. Kowalski, and I.Z. Lurie, "Medicaid as an Investment in Children: What is the Long-Term Impact on Tax Receipts?" NBER Working Paper 20835, January 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
17. L.R. Wherry, S. Miller, R. Kaestner, and B.D. Meyer, "Childhood Medicaid Coverage and Later Life Health Care Utilization," NBER Working Paper 20929, February 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
18. J. Currie and H. Schwandt, "Mortality Inequality: The Good News from a County-Level Approach," NBER Working Paper 22199, April 2016, and Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 2016, pp. 29–52.   Go to ⤴︎
19. D. Almond, J.J. Doyle Jr., A.E. Kowalski, and H. Williams, "Estimating Marginal Returns to Medical Care: Evidence from At-Risk Newborns," NBER Working Paper 14522, December 2008, and Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(2), 2010, pp. 591–634.   Go to ⤴︎
20. J. Currie and W.B. MacLeod, "Diagnosing Expertise: Human Capital, Decision Making and Performance Among Physicians," NBER Working Paper 18977, April 2013. Go to ⤴︎
21. E.M. Johnson and M.M. Rehavi, "Physicians Treating Physicians: Information and Incentives in Child-birth," NBER Working Paper 19242, July 2013, and American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 8(1), 2016, pp. 115-41.   Go to ⤴︎
22. J. Fletcher, "The Effects of Childhood ADHD on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," NBER Working Paper 18689, January 2013, and Health Economics, 23(2), 2014, pp. 159-81.   Go to ⤴︎
23. J. Currie, M. Stabile, and L.E. Jones, "Do Stimulant Medications Improve Educational and Behavioral Outcomes for Children with ADHD?" NBER Working Paper 19105, June 2013, and Journal of Health Economics, 37, 2014, pp. 58-69.   Go to ⤴︎
24. S. Busch, E. Goldberstein, and E. Meara, "The FDA and ABCs: The Unintended Consequences of Antidepressant Warnings on Human Capital," NBER Working Paper 17426, September 2011, and Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 2014, pp. 540-71.   Go to ⤴︎
25. D.M. Anderson, R. Cesur, and E. Tekin, "Youth Depression and Future Criminal Behavior," NBER Working Paper 18656, December 2012, and Economic Inquiry, 53(1), 2015, pp. 294-317   Go to ⤴︎
26. A. Aizer, L. Stroud, and S. Buka, "Maternal Stress and Child Outcomes: Evidence from Siblings," NBER Working Paper 18422, September 2012.   Go to ⤴︎
27. W.N. Evans and C.L. Garthwaite, "Giving Mom a Break: The Impact of Higher EITC Payments on Maternal Health," NBER Working Paper 16296, August 2010, and American Economic Journal, 6(2), 2014, pp. 258-90.   Go to ⤴︎
28. P. Persson and M. Rossin-Slater, "Family Ruptures, Stress, and the Mental Health of the Next Generation," NBER Working Paper 22229, May 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
29. S. Black, P.J. Devereux, and K. Salvanes, "Does Grief Transfer across Generations? In-Utero Deaths and Child Outcomes," NBER Working Paper 19979, March 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
30. J. Currie and M. Rossin-Slater, "Weathering the Storm: Hurricanes and Birth Outcomes," NBER Working Paper  18070, May 2012, and Journal of Health Economics, 32(2), 2013, pp. 487–503.   Go to ⤴︎
31. S. Gershenson and E. Tekin, "The Effect of Community Traumatic Events on Student Achievement: Evidence from the Beltway Sniper Attacks," NBER Working Paper 21055, March 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
32. E. Goldberstein, G. Gonzales, and E. Meara, "Economic Conditions and Children's Mental Health," NBER Working Paper 22459, July 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
33. K. Clay, J. Lewis, and E. Severnini, "Canary in a Coal Mine: Infant Mortality, Property Values, and Tradeoffs Associated with Mid-20th Century Air Pollution," NBER Working Paper 22155, April 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
34. J. Currie and W.R. Walker, "Traffic Congestion and Infant Health: Evidence from E-ZPass," NBER Working Paper 15413, October 2009, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3(1), 2011, pp. 65–90.   Go to ⤴︎
35. A. Isen, M. Rossin-Slater, and W.R. Walker, "Every Breath You Take - Every Dollar You'll Make: The Long-Term Consequences of the Clean Air Act of 1970," NBER Working Paper 19858, January 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
36. A. Aizer, J. Currie, P. Simon, and P. Vivier, "Do Low Levels of Blood Lead Reduce Children's Future Test Scores?" NBER Working Paper 22558, August 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
37. J.W. Reyes, "Lead Exposure and Behavior: Effects on Antisocial and Risky Behavior among Children and Adolescents," NBER Working Paper 20366, August 2014, and Economic Inquiry, 53(3), 2015, pp. 1580-1605.   Go to ⤴︎
38. J. Currie, L. Davis, M. Greenstone and W.R. Walker, "Do Housing Prices Reflect Environmental Health Risks? Evidence from More than 1600 Toxic Plant Openings and Closings," NBER Working Paper 18700, January 2013, and American Economic Review, 105(2), 2015, pp. 678-709.   Go to ⤴︎
39. J. Currie, M. Greenstone, and E. Moretti, "Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health," NBER Working Paper 16844, March 2011, and American Economic Review, 101(3), 2011, pp. 435-41.   Go to ⤴︎
40. C. Persico, D. Figlio, and J. Roth, "Inequality Before Birth: The Developmental Consequences of Environmental Toxicants," NBER Working Paper 22263, May 2016. Go to ⤴︎
41. H. Hoynes, D.L. Miller, and D. Simon, "Income, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Infant Health," NBER Working Paper 18206, July 2012, and American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 7(1), 2015, pp. 172-211.   Go to ⤴︎
42. M.P. Bitler, H. Hoynes, and T. Domina, "Experimental Evidence on Distributional Effects of Head Start," NBER Working Paper 20434, August 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
43. P. Kline and C. Walters, "Evaluating Public Programs with Close Substitutes: The Case of Head Start," NBER Working Paper 21658, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
44. S. Markowitz, E.K. Adams, P.M. Dietz, V. Kannan, and V. Tong, "Smoking Policies and Birth Outcomes: Estimates From a New Era," NBER Working Paper 17160, June 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
45. A. Aizer and L. Stroud, "Education, Knowledge and the Evolution of Disparities in Health," NBER Working Paper 15840, March 2010.   Go to ⤴︎
46. D.W. Schanzenbach and M. Zaki, "Expanding the School Breakfast Program: Impacts on Children's Consumption, Nutrition and Health," NBER Working Paper 20308, July 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
47. H. Hoyes, M. Page and A. Huff Stevens, "Is a WIC Start a Better Start? Evaluating WIC's Impact on Infant Health Using Program Introduction," NBER Working Paper  15589, December 2009, and Journal of Public Economics, 95, 2011, pp. 813–27.   Go to ⤴︎
48. J. Currie and I. Rajani, "Within-Mother Estimates of the Effects of WIC on Birth Outcomes in New York City," NBER Working Paper 20400, August 2014, and Economic Inquiry, 53(4), 2015, pp. 1691–1701.   Go to ⤴︎
49. J. Cawley, D. Frisvold, and C. Meyerhoefer, "The Impact of Physical Education on Obesity among Elementary School Children," NBER Working Paper 18341, August 2012, and Journal of Health Economics, 32(4), 2013, pp. 743–55.   Go to ⤴︎
50. P.M. Anderson, K.F. Butcher, and D.W. Schanzenbach, "Adequate (or Adipose?) Yearly Progress: Assessing the Effect of 'No Child Left Behind' on Children's Obesity," NBER Working Paper 16873, March 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
51. S. Lundberg, R.A. Pollak, and J.E. Stearns, "Family Inequality: Diverging Patterns in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing," NBER Working Paper 22078, March 2016, and Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 2016, pp. 79-102.   Go to ⤴︎
52. M. Doepke and F. Kindermann, "Bargaining over Babies: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications," NBER Working Paper 22072, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
53. L.J. Dettling and M.S. Schettini Kearney, "House Prices and Birth Rates: The Impact of the Real Estate Market on the Decision to Have a Baby," NBER Working Paper 17485, October 2011, and Journal of Public Economics, 110, 2014, pp. 1–116.   Go to ⤴︎
54. M. Bailey, "Reexamining the Impact of Family Planning Programs on U.S. Fertility: Evidence from the War on Poverty and the Early Years of Title X," NBER Working Paper 17343, August 2011, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 4(2), 2012, pp. 62-97; also M. Bailey, "Fifty Years of Family Planning: New Evidence on the Long-Run Effects of Increasing Access to Contraception," NBER Working Paper 19493, October 2013, and Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 46(1), 2013, pp.341-409.   Go to ⤴︎
55. M.F. Lovenheim, R. Reback, and L. Wedenoja, "How Does Access to Health Care Affect Teen Fertility and High School Dropout Rates? Evidence from School-based Health Centers," NBER Working Paper 22030, February 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
56. K.S. Buckles and D.M. Hungerman, "The Incidental Fertility Effects of School Condom Distribution Programs," NBER Working Paper 22322, June 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
57. J.M. Lindo and A. Packham, "How Much Can Expanding Access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives Reduce Teen Birth Rates?" NBER Working Paper 21275, June 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
58. M. Jacobson and H. Royer, "Aftershocks: The Impact of Clinic Violence on Abortion Services," NBER Working Paper 16603, December 2010, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3(1), 2011, pp. 189-223.   Go to ⤴︎
59. M.S. Kearney and P.B. Levine, "Explaining Recent Trends in the U.S. Teen Birth Rate," NBER Working Paper 17964, March 2012; also M.S. Kearney and P.B. Levine, "Media Influences on Social Out-comes: The Impact of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on Teen Childbearing," NBER Working Paper 19795, January 2014, and American Economic Review, 105(12), 2015, pp. 3597-632.   Go to ⤴︎
60. C. Juhn, Y. Rubinstein, and A. Zuppann, "The Quantity-Quality Trade-off and the Formation of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills," NBER Working Paper 21824, December 2015. Go to ⤴︎
61. S. Black, P.J. Devereux, and K. Salvanes, "Healthy(?), Wealthy and Wise: Birth Order and Adult Health," NBER Working Paper 21337, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
62. M. Bertrand and J. Pan, "The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior," NBER Working Paper 17541, October 2011, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5(1), 2013, pp. 32-64.   Go to ⤴︎
63. J.M. Lindo, J. Schaller, and B. Hansen, "Caution! Men Not at Work: Gender-Specific Labor Market Conditions and Child Maltreatment," NBER Working Paper 18994, April 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
64. M. Page, J. Schaller and D. Simon, "The Effects of Aggregate and Gender-Specific Labor Demand Shocks on Child Health," NBER Working Paper 22394, July 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
65. C. Herbst and E. Tekin, "Child Care Subsidies and Childhood Obesity," NBER Working Paper 15007, May 2009, and Review of Economics of the Household, 9(3), 2011, pp. 349-78.   Go to ⤴︎
66. A. Chen, E. Oster, and H. Williams, "Why is Infant Mortality Higher in the US than in Europe?" NBER Working Paper 20525, September 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
67. A. Gelber and A. Isen, "Children's Schooling and Parents' Investment in Children: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study," NBER Working Paper 17704, December 2011, and Journal of Public Economics, 101, 2013, pp. 25-38.   Go to ⤴︎
68. A. Aizer and F. Cunha, "The Production of Human Capital: Endowments, Investments and Fertility," NBER Working Paper 18429, September 2012.   Go to ⤴︎
69. R. Fryer, S. Levitt and J. List, "Parental Incentives and Early Childhood Achievement: A Field Experiment in Chicago Heights," NBER Working Paper 21477, August 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
70. M. Rossin-Slater and M. Wust, "Parental Responses to Child Support Obligations: Evidence from Administrative Data," NBER Working Paper 22227, May 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
71. S. Mayer, A. Kalil, P. Oreopoulos, and S. Gallegos, "Using Behavioral Insights to Increase Parental Engagement: The Parents and Children Together (PACT) Intervention," NBER Working Paper 21602, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
72. M. Sarzosa and S. Urzua, "Bullying among Adolescents: The Role of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills," NBER Working Paper 21631, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
73. A. Aizer and J.J. Doyle Jr., "Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly-Assigned Judges," NBER Working Paper 19102, June 2013, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(2), 2015, pp. 759-803.   Go to ⤴︎
74. D.M. Anderson, R. Cesur, and E. Tekin, "Youth Depression and Future Criminal Behavior," NBER Working Paper 18565, December 2012, and Economic Inquiry, 53(1), 2015, pp. 294-317.   Go to ⤴︎
75. J. Fletcher, "Adolescent Depression and Adult Labor Market Outcomes," NBER Working Paper 18216, July 2012, and Southern Economic Journal, 80(1), 2013, pp. 26-49.   Go to ⤴︎
76. J.J. Heckman and T. Kautz, "Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions that Improve Character and Cognition," NBER Working Paper 19656, November 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
77. A. Cuellar and D.M. Dave, "Causal Effects of Mental Health Treatment on Education Outcomes for Youth in the Justice System," NBER Working Paper 21206, May 2015, and Economics Education Review, 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
78. D.M. Anderson, B. Hansen, and D. Rees, "Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use," NBER Working Paper 20332, July 2014, and American Law and Economics Review, 17(2), 2015, pp. 495-528.   Go to ⤴︎
79. B. Hansen, J. Sabia, and D. Rees, "Cigarette Taxes and Youth Smoking: Updated Estimates Using YRBS Data," NBER Working Paper 21311, June 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
80. P. Cook, K. Dodge, G. Farkas, R. Fryer, Jr., J. Guryan, J. Ludwig, S. Meyer, H. Pollack, and L. Steinberg, "The (Surprising) Efficacy of Academic and Behavioral Intervention with Disadvantaged Youth: Results from a Randomized Experiment in Chicago," NBER Working Paper 19862, January 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
81. S. Heller, A. Shah, J. Guryan, J. Ludwig, S. Mullainathan, and H. Pollack, "Thinking, Fast and Slow? Some Field Experiments to Reduce Crime and Dropout in Chicago," NBER Working Paper 21178, May 2015. Go to ⤴︎

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