Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions That Improve Character and Cognition
This paper reviews the recent literature on measuring and boosting cognitive and noncognitive skills. The literature establishes that achievement tests do not adequately capture character skills--personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences--that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. Their predictive power rivals that of cognitive skills. Reliable measures of character have been developed. All measures of character and cognition are measures of performance on some task. In order to reliably estimate skills from tasks, it is necessary to standardize for incentives, effort, and other skills when measuring any particular skill.
Character is a skill, not a trait. At any age, character skills are stable across different tasks, but skills can change over the life cycle. Character is shaped by families, schools, and social environments. Skill development is a dynamic process, in which the early years lay the foundation for successful investment in later years.
High-quality early childhood and elementary school programs improve character skills in a lasting and cost-effective way. Many of them beneficially affect later-life outcomes without improving cognition. There are fewer long-term evaluations of adolescent interventions, but workplace-based programs that teach character skills are promising. The common feature of successful interventions across all stages of the life cycle through adulthood is that they promote attachment and provide a secure base for exploration and learning for the child. Successful interventions emulate the mentoring environments offered by successful families.
This research was supported in part by the American Bar Foundation, the Pritzker Children's Initiative, the Buffett Early Childhood Fund, NICHD 5R37HD065072, 5R01HD054702, the Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group--an initiative of the Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics--funded by the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET), and an anonymous funder. We acknowledge the support of an European Research Council grant hosted by the University College Dublin, DEVHEALTH 269874. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the funders or commentators mentioned here. We thank Linor Kiknadze and Edward Sung for valuable research assistance. We received helpful comments from Richard Boyle, Ron Diris, Maryclare Grin, Robert Lerman, Seong Hyeok Moon, Dan Moran, Maria Rosales, and Indra Wechsberg. A version of this paper appears in Heckman, Humphries, and Kautz (2014b): see Heckman and Kautz (2014b). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
“Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions that Improve Character and Cognition,” (with T. Kautz). In The Myth of Achievement Tests: The GED and the Role of Character in American Life, edited by J. Heckman, J.E. Humphries and T. Kautz. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 341-430. (2014).