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About the Author(s)

Jonathan Gruber

Jonathan Gruber is the Ford Professor of Economics at MIT. He is an NBER research associate and has been director of the bureau's Health Care Program for the past decade. Gruber was an architect of health care reform efforts in Massachusetts and consulted with the Obama Administration on creation of the Affordable Care Act


1. "The Affordable Care Act's Effects on Patients, Providers and the Economy: What We've Learned So Far," Gruber J, Sommers B. NBER Working Paper 25932, June 2019. Go to ⤴︎
2. Effects of Federal Policy to Insure Young Adults: Evidence from the 2010 Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Mandate," Antwi Y, Moriya A, Simon K. NBER Working Paper 18200, June 2012.  Go to ⤴︎
3. "The Role of Federal and State Dependent Coverage Eligibility Policies on the Health Insurance Status of Young Adults," Cantor J, Monheit A, DeLia D, Lloyd K. NBER Working Paper 18254, July 2012.  Go to ⤴︎
4. "Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage in Medicaid Expansion and Non-Expansion States," Courtemanche C, Marton J, Ukert B, Yelowitz A, Zapata D. NBER Working Paper 22182, April 2016.  Go to ⤴︎
5. "Premium Subsidies, the Mandate, and Medicaid Expansion: Coverage Effects of the Affordable Care Act," Frean M, Gruber J, Sommers B. NBER Working Paper 22213, December 2016.  Go to ⤴︎
6. "Effects of Federal Policy to Insure Young Adults: Evidence from the 2010 Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Mandate," Antwi Y, Moriya A, Simon K. NBER Working Paper 18200, June 2012; "The Effect of Insurance Expansions on Smoking Cessation Medication Prescriptions: Evidence from ACA Medicaid Expansion," Maclean J, Pesko M, Hill S. NBER Working Paper 23450, May 2017; "The Effect of Public Insurance Expansions on Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Evidence from the Affordable Care Act," Maclean J, Saloner B. NBER Working Paper 23342, April 2017; "Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Health Behaviors after Three Years," Courtemanche C, Marton J, Ukert B, Yelowitz A, Zapata D. NBER Working Paper 24511, April 2018. Go to ⤴︎
7. "Early Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Health Care Access, Risky Health Behaviors, and Self-Assessed Health," Courtemanche C, Marton J, Ukert B, Yelowitz A, Zapata D. NBER Working Paper 23269, March 2017; "Impacts of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision on Health-Related Outcomes of Young Adults," Barbaresco S, Courtemanche C, Qi Y. NBER Working Paper 20148, May 2014.  Go to ⤴︎
8. "Public Health Insurance, Labor Supply, and Employment Lock," Garthwaite C, Gross T, Notowidigdo M. NBER Working Paper 19220, July 2013. Go to ⤴︎
9. "The Impact of the Affordable Care Act Young Adult Provision on Childbearing, Marriage, and Tax Filing Behavior: Evidence from Tax Data," Heim B, Luri I, Simon K. NBER Working Paper 23092, January 2017. Go to ⤴︎
10. "The Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage and Labor Market Outcomes," Duggan M, Goda G, Jackson E. NBER Working Paper 23607, July 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
11. "Informational Frictions and Practice Variation: Evidence from Physicians in Training," Chan D. NBER Working Paper 21855, January 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
12. "Physician Beliefs and Patient Preferences: A New Look at Regional Variation in Health Care Spending," Cutler D, Skinner J, Stern A, Wennberg D. NBER Working Paper 19320, August 2013.  Go to ⤴︎
13. "Physician Practice Style and Healthcare Costs: Evidence from Emergency Departments," Gowrisankaran G, Joiner K, Léger P. NBER Working Paper 24155, December 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
14. "Physician Practice Style and Patient Health Outcomes: The Case of Heart Attacks," Currie J, MacLeod W, Van Parys J. NBER Working Paper 21218, May 2015.  Go to ⤴︎
15. "Information and Quality when Motivation is Intrinsic: Evidence from Surgeon Report Cards," Kolstad J. NBER Working Paper 18804, February 2013. Go to ⤴︎
16. "Physicians Treating Physicians: Information and Incentives in Childbirth," Johnson E, Rehavi M. NBER Working Paper 19242, July 2013.  Go to ⤴︎
17. "Is Great Information Good Enough? Evidence from Physicians as Patients," Frakes M, Gruber J, Jena A. NBER Working Paper 26038, July 2019. Go to ⤴︎
18. "Hospital Choices, Hospital Prices and Financial Incentives to Physicians," Ho K, Pakes A. NBER Working Paper 19333, March 2014. Go to ⤴︎
19. "Does Multispecialty Practice Enhance Physician Market Power?" Baker L, Bundorf M, Kessler D. NBER Working Paper 23871, September 2017.  Go to ⤴︎
20. "In the Shadow of a Giant: Medicare's Influence on Private Physician Payments," Clemens J, Gottlieb J. NBER Working Paper 19503, October 2013.  Go to ⤴︎
21. "The Anatomy of Physician Payments: Contracting Subject to Complexity," Clemens J, Gottlieb J, Molnár T. NBER Working Paper 21642, October 2015.  Go to ⤴︎
22. "Do High-Cost Hospitals Deliver Better Care? Evidence from Ambulance Referral Patterns," Doyle J, Graves J, Gruber J, Kleiner S. NBER Working Paper 17936, March 2012. Go to ⤴︎
23. "Evaluating Measures of Hospital Quality," Doyle J, Graves J, Gruber J. NBER Working Paper 23166, February 2017. Go to ⤴︎
24. "Uncovering Waste in US Healthcare," Doyle J, Graves J, Gruber J. NBER Working Paper 21050, March 2015. Go to ⤴︎
25. "Strategic Patient Discharge: The Case of Long-Term Care Hospitals," Eliason P, Grieco P, McDevitt R, Roberts J. NBER Working Paper 22598, September 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
26. "Long-Term Care Hospitals: A Case Study in Waste," Einav L, Finkelstein A, Mahoney N. NBER Working Paper 24946, August 2018. Go to ⤴︎
27. "The Price Ain't Right? Hospital Prices and Health Spending on the Privately Insured," Cooper Z, Craig S, Gaynor M, Van Reenen J. NBER Working Paper 21815, December 2015. Go to ⤴︎
28. "The Role of Hospital and Market Characteristics in Invasive Cardiac Service Diffusion," Horwitz J, Hsuan C, Nichols A. NBER Working Paper 23530, June 2017. Go to ⤴︎
29. "Mergers When Prices are Negotiated: Evidence from the Hospital Industry," Gowrisankaran G, Nevo A, Town R. NBER Working Paper 18875, March 2013. Go to ⤴︎
30. "Mergers and Marginal Costs: New Evidence on Hospital Buyer Power," Craig S, Grennan M, Swanson A. NBER Working Paper 24926, August 2018. Go to ⤴︎
31. "Antitrust Treatment of Nonprofits: Should Hospitals Receive Special Care?" Capps C, Carlton D, David G. NBER Working Paper 23131, February 2017. Go to ⤴︎
32. "Pharmaceutical Profits and the Social Value of Innovation," Dranove D, Garthwaite C, Hermosilla M. NBER Working Paper 20212, June 2014. Go to ⤴︎
33. "Missing Novelty in Drug Development," Krieger J, Li D, Papanikolaou D. NBER Working Paper 24595 May 2018. Go to ⤴︎
34. "Public R&D Investments and Private-Sector Patenting: Evidence from NIH Funding Rules," Azoulay P, Graff Zivin J, Li D, Sampat B. NBER Working Paper 20889, January 2015. Go to ⤴︎
35. "How Do Patents Affect Follow-On Innovation? Evidence from the Human Genome," Sampat B, Williams H. NBER Working Paper 21666, October 2015.  Go to ⤴︎
36. "Do Firms Underinvest in Long-Term Research? Evidence from Cancer Clinical Trials," Budish E, Roin B, Williams H. NBER Working Paper 19430, September 2013. Go to ⤴︎
37. "The Landscape of US Generic Prescription Drug Markets, 2004–2016," Berndt E, Conti R, Murphy S. NBER Working Paper 23640, July 2017. Go to ⤴︎
38. "The Price to Consumers of Generic Pharmaceuticals: Beyond the Headlines," Frank R, Hicks A, Berndt E. NBER Working Paper 26120, July 2019. Go to ⤴︎
39. "Specialty Drug Prices and Utilization after Loss of US Patent Exclusivity, 2001–07," Conti R, Berndt E. NBER Working Paper 20016, March 2014. Go to ⤴︎
40. "Evolving Choice Inconsistencies in Choice of Prescription Drug Insurance," Abaluck J, Gruber J. NBER Working Paper 19163, June 2013.  Go to ⤴︎
41. "Improving the Quality of Choices in Health Insurance Markets," Abaluck J, Gruber J. NBER Working Paper 22917, December 2016.  Go to ⤴︎
42. "Do Individuals Make Sensible Health Insurance Decisions? Evidence from a Menu with Dominated Options," Bhargava S, Loewenstein G, Sydnor J. NBER Working Paper 21160, May 2015.  Go to ⤴︎
43. "Dominated Options in Health Insurance Plans," Liu C, Sydnor J. NBER Working Paper 24392, March 2018.  Go to ⤴︎
44. "The Role of Behavioral Frictions in Health Insurance Marketplace Enrollment and Risk: Evidence from a Field Experiment," Domurat R, Menashe I, Yin W. NBER Working Paper 26153, August 2019. Go to ⤴︎
45. "Reclassification Risk in the Small Group Health Insurance Market," Fleitas S, Gowrisankaran G, Lo Sasso A. NBER Working Paper 24663, May 2018. Go to ⤴︎
46. "Insurers' Response to Selection Risk: Evidence from Medicare Enrollment Reforms" Decarolis F, Guglielmo A. NBER Working Paper 22876, December 2016.  Go to ⤴︎
47. "Reinsurance, Repayments, and Risk Adjustment in Individual Health Insurance: Germany, The Netherlands, and the US Marketplaces," McGuire T, Schillo S, van Kleef R. NBER Working Paper 25374, December 2018; "Assessing Incentives for Adverse Selection in Health Plan Payment Systems," Layton T, Ellis R, McGuire T. NBER Working Paper 21531, September 2015; "Risk Corridors and Reinsurance in Health Insurance Marketplaces: Insurance for Insurers," Layton T, McGuire T, Sinaiko A. NBER Working Paper 20515, September 2014; "Tradeoffs in the Design of Health Plan Payment Systems: Fit, Power and Balance," Geruso M, McGuire T. NBER Working Paper 20359, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎
48. "Upcoding: Evidence from Medicare on Squishy Risk Adjustment," Geruso M, Layton T. NBER Working Paper 21222, May 2015. Go to ⤴︎
49.  "Information Frictions and Adverse Selection: Policy Interventions in Health Insurance Markets," Handel B, Kolstad J, Spinnewijn J. NBER Working Paper 21759, November 2015. Go to ⤴︎
50. "Education and Health: Insights from International Comparisons," Cutler D, Lleras-Muney A. NBER Working Paper 17738, January 2012. Go to ⤴︎
51. "Why is Infant Mortality Higher in the US than in Europe?" Chen A, Oster E, Williams H. NBER Working Paper 20525, September 2014.  Go to ⤴︎
52. "Mortality Inequality in Canada and the US: Divergent or Convergent Trends?" Baker M, Currie J, Schwandt H. NBER Working Paper 23514, June 2017. Go to ⤴︎
53. "Pauvreté, Egalité, Mortalité: Mortality (In)equality in France and the United States," Currie J, Schwandt H, Thuilliez J. NBER Working Paper 24623, May 2018. Go to ⤴︎
54. "The Opportunities and Limitations of Monopsony Power in Healthcare: Evidence from the United States and Canada," Chown J, Dranove D, Garthwaite C, Keener J. NBER Working Paper 26122, July 2019.  Go to ⤴︎
55. "Saving Lives by Tying Hands: The Unexpected Effects of Constraining Health Care Providers," Gruber J, Hoe T, Stoye G. NBER Working Paper 24445, March 2018. Go to ⤴︎
56.  "The Effect of Patient Cost Sharing on Utilization, Health, and Risk Protection," Shigeoka, H. NBER Working Paper 19726, December 2013.  Go to ⤴︎
57. "The Pros and Cons of Sick Pay Schemes: Testing for Contagious Presenteeism and Noncontagious Absenteeism Behavior," Pichler S, Ziebarth N. NBER Working Paper 22530, August 2016. Go to ⤴︎
58. "The Value of Socialized Medicine: The Impact of Universal Primary Healthcare Provision on Mortality Rates in Turkey," Cesur R, Gunes P, Tekin E, Ulker A. NBER Working Paper 21510, August 2015. Go to ⤴︎
59. "Adult Mortality Five Years after a Natural Disaster: Evidence from the Indian Ocean Tsunami," Ho J, Frankenberg E, Sumantri C, Thomas D. NBER Working Paper 22317, June 2016.  Go to ⤴︎
60. "Can Iron-Fortified Salt Control Anemia? Evidence from Two Experiments in Rural Bihar," Banerjee A, Barnhardt S, Duflo E. NBER Working Paper 22121, March 2016.  Go to ⤴︎
61. "Quality and Accountability in Health-Care Delivery: Audit-Study Evidence from Primary Care in India," Das J, Holla A, Mohpal A, Muralidharan K. NBER Working Paper 21405, July 2015. Go to ⤴︎




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