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About the Author(s)


Leah Boustan is a professor of economics at Princeton University and will succeed Goldin, becoming co-director of the program beginning July 2017. 


William Collins is a Terrence E. Adderly Jr. Professor of Economics at Vanderbilt University and will succeed Goldin, becoming co-director of the program beginning July 2017. 


Claudia Goldin, the Henry Lee Professor of Economics at Harvard University, has served as director of the NBER Program of the Development of the American Economy since 1989.


1. R. Abramitzky, "Economics and the Modern Economic Historian," NBER Working Paper 21636, October 2015; and Journal of Economic History, 75(4), December, pp. 1240–51.   Go to ⤴︎
2. R. Fogel and N. Grotte, "An Overview of The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World Since 1700," NBER Working Paper 16938, April 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
3. "Infant mortality" is the death of a child from birth to one year of age [0, 1] in a particular year and is usually expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births in that year. The highest rates per 1,000 live births in 2015 were about 100 (e.g., Afghanistan, Mali, Somalia), with most extremely poor nations in the 60 to 80 range (e.g., Angola, Burundi, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia). In 1880, the rate was 160/1,000 live births in Massachusetts, a relatively high-income state at the time, and was 180/1,000 in the more urban parts of the state.   Go to ⤴︎
4. M. Alsan and C. Goldin, "Watersheds in Infant Mortality: The Role of Effective Water and Sewerage Infra-structure, 1880 to 1915," NBER Working Paper 21263, June 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
5. K. Eriksson, G.T. Niemesh, and M. Thomasson, "Revising Infant Mortality Rates for the Early 20th Century United States," NBER Working Paper 23263, March 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
6. W. Hanlon, "Pollution and Mortality in the 19th Century," NBER Working Paper 21647, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
7. W. Hanlon, "Coal Smoke and the Costs of the Industrial Revolution," NBER Working Paper 22921, December 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
8. K. Clay, J. Lewis, and E. Severnini, "Canary in a Coal Mine: Infant Mortality, Property Values, and Tradeoffs Associated with Mid-20th Century Air Pollution," NBER Working Paper 22155, April 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
9. K. Clay, J. Lewis, and E. Severnini, "Pollution, Infectious Disease, and Mortality: Evidence from the 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic," NBER Working Paper 21635, October 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
10. A. Barreca, K. Clay, and J. Tarr, "Coal, Smoke, and Death: Bituminous Coal and American Home Heating," NBER Working Paper 19881, February 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
11. M. Alsan and M. Wanamaker, "Tuskegee and the Health of Black Men," NBER Working Paper 22323, June 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
12. R. Abramitzky and L. Boustan, "Immigration in American Economic History," NBER Working Paper 21882, January 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
13. R. Abramitzky, L. Boustan, and K. Eriksson, "Europe's Tired, Poor, Huddled Masses: Self-Selection and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration," NBER Working Paper 15684, January 2010, and the American Economic Review, 102(5), August 2012, pp. 1832–56.   Go to ⤴︎
14. R. Abramitzky, L. Boustan, and K. Eriksson, "Have the Poor Always Been Less Likely to Migrate? Evidence from Inheritance Practices During the Age of Mass Migration," NBER Working Paper 18298, August 2012, and Journal of Development Economics, 102(C), 2013, pp. 2–14.   Go to ⤴︎
15. R. Abramitzky, L. Boustan, and K. Eriksson, "A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Out-comes in the Age of Mass Migration," NBER Working Paper 18011, April 2012, and Journal of Political Economy, 122(3), June 2014, pp. 467–506.   Go to ⤴︎
16. R. Abramitzky, L. Boustan, and K. Eriksson, "Cultural Assimilation during the Age of Mass Migration," NBER Working Paper 22381, July 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
17. P. Moser, A. Voena, and F. Waldinger, "German-Jewish Emigres and U.S. Invention," NBER Working Paper  19962, March 2014, and the American Economic Review, 104(10), October 2014, pp. 3222–55.   Go to ⤴︎
18. S. Sequeira, N. Nunn, and N. Qian, "Migrants and the Making of America: The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Immigration during the Age of Mass Migration," NBER Working Paper 23289, March 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
19. R. Molloy, C.L. Smith, and A.K. Wozniak, "Declining Migration within the U.S.: The Role of the Labor Market," NBER Working Paper 20065, April 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
20. W. Collins and M. Wanamaker, "The Great Migration in Black and White: New Evidence on the Selection and Sorting of Southern Migrants," NBER Working Paper 21384, July 2015, and Journal of Economic History, 75(4), December 2015, pp. 947–92. Go to ⤴︎
21. L. Boustan, Competition in the Promised Land: Black Migrants in Northern Cities and Labor Markets, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
22. T. Logan and J. Parman, "The National Rise in Residential Segregation," NBER Working Paper 20934, February 2015, and Journal of Economic History, 77(1), March 2017, pp. 127–70.   Go to ⤴︎
23. A. Shertzer and R. Walsh, "Racial Sorting and the Emergence of Segregation in American Cities," NBER Working Paper 22077, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
24. A. Shertzer, T. Twinam, and R. Walsh, "Race, Ethnicity, and Discriminatory Zoning," NBER Working Paper  20108, May 2014, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 8(3), July 2016, pp. 217–46.   Go to ⤴︎
25. E. Benmelech, C. Frydman, and D. Papanikolaou, "Financial Frictions and Employment during the Great Depression," NBER Working Paper 23216, March 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
26. K. Mitchener and G. Richardson, "Network Contagion and Interbank Amplification during the Great Depression," NBER Working Paper 22074, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
27. J. Cohen, K. Hachem, and G. Richardson, "Relationship Lending and the Great Depression: Measurement and New Implications," NBER Working Paper 22891, December 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
28. J. Hausman, P. Rhode, and J. Wieland, "Recovery from the Great Depression: The Farm Channel in Spring 1933," NBER Working Paper 23172, February 2017. Go to ⤴︎
29. P. Fishback, "How Successful Was the New Deal? The Microeconomic Impact of New Deal Spending and Lending Policies in the 1930s," NBER Working Paper 21925, January 2016. Go to ⤴︎
30. D. Fetter and L. Lockwood, "Government Old-Age Support and Labor Supply: Evidence from the Old Age Assistance Program," NBER Working Paper 22132, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
31. D. Fetter, "Local Government and Old-Age Support in the New Deal," NBER Working Paper 22760, revised February 2017. Go to ⤴︎

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