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About the Author(s)

Profile Photo of Henrik Kleven

Henrik J. Kleven is the Lynn Bendheim Thoman, Class of 1977 and Robert Bendheim, Class of 1937, Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University. Previously, he has held positions at the London School of Economics and the University of Copenhagen. He is a former coeditor of the American Economic Review and former chief editor of the Journal of Public Economics.

An NBER research associate affiliated with the Public Economics Program, he received his PhD from the University of Copenhagen in 2003.

Kleven’s research focuses on public economics and labor economics, including both theoretical and empirical work. He has been particularly active in studying dimensions of inequality, such as gender inequality, as well as the effects and optimal design of taxation, welfare, and family policies. His work has had policy impact in both developed and developing countries. His academic articles have been published in leading journals such as the American Economic Review, Econometrica, the Journal of Political Economy, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, and The Review of Economic Studies.


1. The Geography of Child Penalties and Gender Norms: Evidence from the United States,” Kleven H. NBER Working Paper 30176, September 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
2. Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark,” Kleven H, Landais C, Søgaard J. NBER Working Paper 24219, January 2018, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 11(4), October 2019, pp. 181–209. This paper develops an event study approach using panel data, while Kleven (2022) develops a pseudo-event study approach using cross-sectional data. Both approaches consider the effects of having children, controlling flexibly for life-cycle trends (the effect of age) and time trends (the effect of calendar time).   Go to ⤴︎
3. We use the term “child penalty” as opposed to the term “motherhood penalty.” We are considering the effects of all children (within the event time horizon), not just the effect of the first child (motherhood).   Go to ⤴︎
4. Child Penalties across Countries: Evidence and Explanations,” Kleven H, Landais C, Posch J, Steinhauer A, Zweimüller J. NBER Working Paper 25524, February 2019, and AEA Papers and Proceedings 109, May 2019, pp. 122–126.   Go to ⤴︎
5. “The Child Penalty Atlas,” Kleven H, Landais C, Mariante G. Working paper, in progress.   Go to ⤴︎
6. Does Biology Drive Child Penalties? Evidence from Biological and Adoptive Families,” Kleven H, Landais C, Søgaard J. NBER Working Paper 27130, August 2020, and American Economic Review: Insights 3(2), June 2021, pp. 183–198.   Go to ⤴︎
7. Do Family Policies Reduce Gender Inequality? Evidence from 60 Years of Policy Experimentation,” Kleven H, Landais C, Posch J, Steinhauer A, Zweimüller J. NBER Working Paper 28082, September 2022, and American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, forthcoming.     Go to ⤴︎
8. A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter,” Goldin C. American Economic Review 104(4), April 2014, pp. 1091–1119.   Go to ⤴︎

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