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Child Penalties Across Countries: Evidence and Explanations

Henrik Kleven, Camille Landais, Johanna Posch, Andreas Steinhauer, Josef Zweimüller

NBER Working Paper No. 25524
Issued in February 2019
NBER Program(s):Children, Labor Studies, Public Economics

This paper provides evidence on child penalties in female and male earnings in different countries. The estimates are based on event studies around the birth of the first child, using the specification proposed by Kleven et al. (2018). The analysis reveals some striking similarities in the qualitative effects of children across countries, but also sharp differences in the magnitude of the effects. We discuss the potential role of family policies (parental leave and child care provision) and gender norms in explaining the observed differences.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w25524

Published: Henrik Kleven & Camille Landais & Johanna Posch & Andreas Steinhauer & Josef Zweimüller, 2019. "Child Penalties across Countries: Evidence and Explanations," AEA Papers and Proceedings, vol 109, pages 122-126.

 
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