Child Penalties Across Countries: Evidence and Explanations
This paper provides evidence on child penalties in female and male earnings in different countries. The estimates are based on event studies around the birth of the first child, using the specification proposed by Kleven et al. (2018). The analysis reveals some striking similarities in the qualitative effects of children across countries, but also sharp differences in the magnitude of the effects. We discuss the potential role of family policies (parental leave and child care provision) and gender norms in explaining the observed differences.
We thank Francine Blau for comments, and Elena Marchetti-Bowick and Tatiana Pazem for excellent research assistance. Camille Landais gratefully acknowledges support from ERC grant #679704 -DYNAMICSS.The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Henrik Kleven & Camille Landais & Johanna Posch & Andreas Steinhauer & Josef Zweimüller, 2019. "Child Penalties across Countries: Evidence and Explanations," AEA Papers and Proceedings, vol 109, pages 122-126. citation courtesy of