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About the Author(s)

Robert Feenstra Profile

Robert Feenstra is a director of the NBER's International Trade and Investment Program. He is C. Bryan Cameron Distinquished Chair in International Economics at the University of California, Davis.

Endnotes

1. J. R. Pierce and P. K. Schott, "The Surprisingly Swift Decline of U.S. Manufacturing Employment," NBER Working Paper 18655, December 2012; K. Handley and N. Limão, "Policy Uncertainty, Trade, and Welfare: Theory and Evidence for China and the U.S.," NBER Working Paper 19376, January 2012; L. Feng, Z. Li, and D. Swenson, "Trade Policy Uncertainty and Exports: Evidence from China's WTO Accession," NBER Working Paper 21985, February 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
2. D. H. Autor, D. Dorn, and G. H. Hanson, "The China Syndrome: Local Labor Market Effects of Import Competition in the United States," NBER Working Paper 18054, May 2012, and the American Economic Review, 103(6), 2013, pp. 2121–68; D. H. Autor, D. Dorn, and G. H. Hanson, "Untangling Trade and Technology: Evidence from Local Labor Markets," NBER Working Paper 18938, April 2013, and the Economic Journal, 125(584), May 2015, pp. 621–46.   Go to ⤴︎
3. D. H. Autor, D. Dorn, and G. H. Hanson, "The Geography of Trade and Technology Shocks in the United States," NBER Working Paper 18940, April 2013, and the American Economic Review, 103(3), May 2013, pp. 220–25.   Go to ⤴︎
4. D. H. Autor, D. Dorn, and G. H. Hanson, "Trade Adjustment: Worker Level Evidence," NBER Working Paper  19226, July 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
5. D. Acemoglu, D. H. Autor, D. Dorn, G. H. Hanson, and B. Price, "Import Competition and the Great U.S. Employment Sag of the 2000s," NBER Working Paper 20395, August 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
6. L. Caliendo, M. Dvorkin, F. Parro, "The Impact of Trade on Labor Market Dynamics," NBER Working Paper  21149, May 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
7. A. Ebenstein, A. E. Harrison, and M. S. McMillan, "Why are American Workers getting Poorer? China, Trade and Offshoring," NBER Working Paper 21027, March 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
8. J. Harrigan, A. Reshef, F. Toubal, "The March of the Techies: Technology, Trade, and Job Polarization in France, 1994–2007," NBER Working Paper 22110, March 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
9. W. Keller and H. Utar, "International Trade and Job Polarization: Evidence at the Worker Level," NBER Working Paper 22315, June 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
10. P. Antràs, T. C. Fort, and F. Tintelnot, "The Margins of Global Sourcing: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Firms," NBER Working Paper 20772, December 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
11. P. Antràs and D. Chor, "Organizing the Global Value Chain," NBER Working Paper 18163, June 2012, and Econometrica, 81(6), 2013, pp. 2127–2204.   Go to ⤴︎
12. L. Alfaro, P. Antràs, D. Chor, and P. Conconi, "Internalizing Global Value Chains: A Firm-Level Analysis," NBER Working Paper 21582, September 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
13. P. Antràs, D. Chor, T. Fally, and R. Hillberry, "Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows," NBER Working Paper 17819, February 2012, and the American Economic Review, 102(3), May 2012, pp. 412–16.   Go to ⤴︎
14. T. Fally and R. Hillberry, "A Coasian Model of International Production Chains," NBER Working Paper 21520, September 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
15. A. Costinot, J. Vogel, and S. Wang, "Global Supply Chains and Wage Inequality," NBER Working Paper 17976, April 2012. Go to ⤴︎
16. A. Burstein, E. Morales, and J. Vogel, "Accounting for Changes in Between-Group Inequality," NBER Working Paper 20855, January 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
17. E. Helpman, O. Itskhoki, M.-A. Muendler, and S. J. Redding, "Trade and Inequality: From Theory to Estimation," NBER Working Paper 17991, April 2012.   Go to ⤴︎
18. R. Dix-Carneiro and B. K. Kovak, "Trade Liberalization and the Skill Premium: A Local Labor Markets Approach," NBER Working Paper 20912, January 2015; R. Dix-Carneiro and B. K. Kovak, "Trade Reform and Regional Dynamics: Evidence From 25 Years of Brazilian Matched Employer-Employee Data," NBER Working Paper 20908, January 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
19. G. M. Grossman, "Heterogeneous Workers and International Trade," NBER Working Paper 18788, February 2013, and the Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), 149(2), 2013, pp. 211–45; G. M. Grossman, E. Helpman, and P. Kircher, "Matching and Sorting in a Global Economy," NBER Working Paper 19513, October 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
20. G. M. Grossman and E. Helpman, "Growth, Trade, and Inequality," NBER Working Paper 20502, September 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
21. C.-T. Hsieh and R. Ossa, "A Global View of Productivity Growth in China," NBER Working Paper 16778, February 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
22. T. Chaney, "Distorted Gravity: the Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, 98(4), 2008, pp. 1707–21; M. J. Melitz, "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, 71(6), 2003, pp. 1695-1725.   Go to ⤴︎
23. C. Arkolakis, A. Costinot, and A. Rodríguez-Clare, "New Trade Models, Same Old Gains?" American Economic Review, 102(1), 2012, pp. 94-130.   Go to ⤴︎
24. M. J. Melitz and S. J. Redding, "New Trade Models, New Trade Implications," NBER Working Paper 18919, March 2013, and the American Economic Review, 105(3), 2015, pp. 1105–46; see also M. J. Melitz and S. J. Redding, "Heterogeneous Firms and Trade," NBER Working Paper 18652, December 2012, and in G. Gopinath, E. Helpman, and K. Rogoff, eds., Handbook of International Economics, Volume 4, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 2014, pp. 1-54.   Go to ⤴︎
25. M. J. Melitz and S. J. Redding, "Missing Gains from Trade?" NBER Working Paper 19810, January 2014, and the American Economic Review, 104(5), May 2014, pp. 317–21; T. Chaney and R. Ossa, "Market Size, Division of Labor, and Firm Productivity," NBER Working Paper 18243, July 2012, and the Journal of International Economics, 90(1), 2013, pp. 177–80.   Go to ⤴︎
26. A. M. Fernandes, P. J. Klenow, S. Meleshchuk, M. D. Pierola, and A. Rodríguez-Clare, "The Intensive Margin in Trade: Moving Beyond Pareto," NBER Working Paper w25195, October 2018   Go to ⤴︎
27. R. C. Feenstra, "Restoring the Product Variety and Pro-competitive Gains from Trade with Heterogeneous Firms and Bounded Productivity," NBER Working Paper 19833, January 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
28. C. Arkolakis, A. Costinot, D. Donaldson, and A. Rodríguez-Clare, "The Elusive Pro-Competitive Effects of Trade," NBER Working Paper 21370, July 2015. Go to ⤴︎
29. R. C. Feenstra and D. E. Weinstein, "Globalization, Markups, and U.S. Welfare," NBER Working Paper 15749, February 2010, and forthcoming in the Journal of Political Economy. Go to ⤴︎
30. P. Bertoletti, F. Etro, and I. Simonovska, “International Trade with Indirect Additivity,” NBER Working Paper 21984, December 2016   Go to ⤴︎
31. C. Hottman, S. J. Redding, and D. E. Weinstein, “Quantifying the Sources of Firm Heterogeneity,” NBER Working Paper 20436, August 2014. Go to ⤴︎
32. D. Atkin, B. Faber, and M. Gonzalez-Navarro, “Retail Globalization and Household Welfare: Evidence from  Mexico,” NBER Working Paper 21176, May 2015. Go to ⤴︎
33. P. D. Fajgelbaum and A. K. Khandelwal, “Measuring the Unequal Gains from Trade,” NBER Working Paper 20331, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎
34. A. Costinot and A. Rodríguez-Clare, “Trade Theory with Numbers: Q uantifying the Consequences of Globalization,” NBER Working Paper 18896, March 2013, and in G. Gopinath, E. Helpman, and K. Rogoff, eds., Handbook of International Economics, Volume 4, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 197–262. Go to ⤴︎
35. L. Caliendo, R. C. Feenstra, J. Romalis, and A. M. Taylor, “Tariff Reductions, Entry, and Welfare: Theory and Evidence for the Last Two Decades,” NBER Working Paper 21768, December 2015. Go to ⤴︎
36. J. De Loecker, P. K. Goldberg, A. K. Khandelwal, and N. Pavcnik, “Prices, Markups and Trade Reform,” NBER Working Paper 17925, March 2012. Go to ⤴︎
37. D. A. Irwin, “Tariff Incidence: Evidence from U.S. Sugar Duties, 1890–1930,” NBER Working Paper 20635, October 2014. Go to ⤴︎
38. K. Bagwell, R. W. Staiger, and A. Yurukoglu, “Multilateral Trade Bargaining: A First Look at the GATT Bargaining Records,” NBER Working Paper 21488, August 2015. Go to ⤴︎
39. T. Chaney, “The Gravity Equation in International Trade: An Explanation,” NBER Working Paper 19285, August 2013. Go to ⤴︎
40. T. Allen, C. Arkolakis, and Y. Takahashi, “Universal Gravity,” NBER Working Paper 20787, December 2014. Go to ⤴︎
41. E. Morales, G. Sheu, and A. Zahler, “Gravity and Extended Gravity: UsingMoment Inequalities to Estimate a Model of Export Entry,” NBER Working Paper 19916, February 2014. Go to ⤴︎
42. J. Eaton, S. S. Kortum, and S. Sotelo, “International Trade: Linking Micro and Macro,” NBER Working Paper 17864, February 2012. Go to ⤴︎
43. I. Simonovska and M. E. Waugh, “Trade Models, Trade Elasticities, and the Gains from Trade,” NBER Working Paper 20495, September 2014. Go to ⤴︎
44. R. C. Feenstra, P. A. Luck, M. Obstfeld, and K. Russ, “In Search of the Armington Elasticity,” NBER Working Paper 20063, April 2014. Go to ⤴︎
45. D. E. Agnosteva, J. E. Anderson, and Y. V. Yotov, “Intra-national Trade Costs: Measurement and Aggregation,” NBER Working Paper 19872, January 2014. Go to ⤴︎
46. F. Monte, S. J. Redding, and E. Rossi-Hansberg, “Commuting, Migration, and Local Employment Elasticities,” NBER Working Paper 21706, November 2015. Go to ⤴︎
47. A. B. Bernard, A. Moxnes, and Y. U. Saito, “Production Networks, Geography and Firm Performance,” NBER Working Paper 21082, April 2015. Go to ⤴︎
48. T. Allen and C. Arkolakis, “Trade and Topography of the Spatial Economy,” NBER Working Paper 19181, June 2013. Go to ⤴︎
49. G. M. Ahlfeldt, S. J. Redding, D. M. Sturm, and N. Wolf, “The Economics of Density: Evidence from the Berlin Wall,” NBER Working Paper 20354, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎
50. S. J. Redding and M. Turner, “Transportation Costs and the Spatial Organization of Economic Activity,” NBER Working Paper 20235, June 2014. Go to ⤴︎
51. D. R. Davis and J. I. Dingel, “A Spatial Knowledge Economy,” NBER Working Paper 18188, June 2012; D. R. Davis and J. I. Dingel, “The Comparative Advantage of Cities,” NBER Working Paper 20602, October 2014. Go to ⤴︎
52. P. D. Fajgelbaum, E. Morales, J. C. S. Serrato, and O. M. Zidar, “State Taxes and Spatial Misallocation,” NBER Working Paper 21760, November 2015. Go to ⤴︎
53. R. Ossa, “A Quantitative Analysis of Subsidy Competition in the U.S.,” NBER Working Paper 20975, February 2015. Go to ⤴︎
54. L. Caliendo, F. Parro, E. Rossi-Hansberg, and P.-D. Sarte, “The Impact of Regional and Sectoral Productivity Changes on the U.S. Economy,” NBER Working Paper 20168, May 2014. Go to ⤴︎
55. D. Atkin and D. Donaldson, “Who’s Getting Globalized? The Size and Implications of Intra-national Trade  Costs,” NBER Working Paper 21439, July 2015. Go to ⤴︎
56. A. K. Coşar and P. D. Fajgelbaum, “Internal Geography, International Trade, and Regional Specialization,” NBER Working Paper 19697, December 2013. Go to ⤴︎
57. See for example G. Peri, K. Shih, and C. Sparber, “Foreign and Native Skilled Workers: What Can We Learn from H-1B Lotteries?” NBER Working Paper 21175, May 2015; G.I.P. Ottaviano, G. Peri, and G. C. Wright, “Immigration, Trade and Productivity in Services: Evidence from U.K. Firms,” NBER Working Paper 21200, May 2015; G. Peri and V. Yasenov, “The Labor Market Effects of a Refugee Wave: Applying the Synthetic Control Method to the Mariel Boatlift,” NBER Working Paper 21801, December 2015. Go to ⤴︎
58. See for example A. E. Harrison, J. Y. Lin, and L. C. Xu, “Explaining Africa’s (Dis)advantage,” NBER Working Paper 18683, January 2013, and in World Development, 63(C), 2014, pp. 59–77; M. S. McMillan and K. Harttgen, “What is Driving the ‘African Growth Miracle’?” NBER Working Paper 20077, April 2014; D. Rodrik, “An African Growth Miracle?” NBER Working Paper 20188, June 2014; D. Atkin, A. Chaudhry, S. Chaudry, A. K. Khandelwal, and E. Verhoogen, “Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan,” NBER Working Paper 21417, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
59. D. Donaldson, A. Costinot, and C. B. Smith, “Evolving Comparative Advantage and the Impact of Climate Change in Agricultural Markets: Evidence from 1.7 Million Fields around the World,” NBER Working Paper 20079, April 2014. Go to ⤴︎
60. K. Desmet and E. Rossi-Hansberg, “On the Spatial Economic Impact of Global Warming,” NBER Working Paper 18546, November 2012, and the Journal of Urban Economics, 88, July 2015, pp. 16–37.   Go to ⤴︎
61. C. Cattaneo and G. Peri, “The Migration Response to Increasing Temperatures,” NBER Working Paper 21622, October 2015 Go to ⤴︎

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