The Power of Asking: How Communication Affects Selfishness, Empathy, and Altruism
To understand the "pure" incentives of altruism, economic laboratory research on humans almost always forbids communication between subjects. In reality, however, altruism usually requires interaction between givers and receivers, which clearly must influence choices. Charities, for example, speak of the "power of asking." Indeed, evolutionary theories of altruism are built on human sociality. We experimentally examine communication in which one subject allocates $10 between herself and a receiver, and systematically altered who in the pair could speak. We found that any time the recipient spoke, giving increased - asking is powerful. But when only allocators could speak, choices were significantly more selfish than any other condition. When empathy was heightened by putting allocators "in the receivers shoes," altruism appeared as if recipients had been able to ask, even when they were silent. We conclude that communication dramatically influences altruistic behavior, and appears to largely work by heightening empathy.
We would like to thanks Ben Cowan and Megan Ritz for research assistance, Susan Henning, William Harbaugh, Zack Grossman and two anonymous referees for useful comments and the National Science Foundation for funding. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Andreoni, James & Rao, Justin M., 2011. "The power of asking: How communication affects selfishness, empathy, and altruism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 513-520, August. citation courtesy of
Andreoni, James & Rao, Justin M., 2011. "The power of asking: How communication affects selfishness, empathy, and altruism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 513-520.