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About the Author(s)

Joseph Shapiro Profile

Joseph S. Shapiro is an associate professor at the University of California, Berkeley in the Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics and the Department of Economics. He is associate editor of the Journal of Political Economy, coeditor of the Journal of Public Economics, and a research associate at the Energy Institute of Berkeley’s Haas School of Business.

He is an NBER research associate affiliated with the Environment and Energy Economics Program and the International Trade and Investment Program.

Shapiro’s research focuses on two general questions: how do globalization and the environment interact, and what are the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity impacts of environmental and energy policies, particularly for air, water, and climate? He has received an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, the Kiel Institute Excellence in Global Economic Affairs Award, the American Energy Society Energy Article of the Year award, and a Marshall Scholarship.

Shapiro received a PhD in economics from MIT.

Reed Walker Profile

Reed Walker is the Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy and an associate professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley. His research explores the social costs of environmental externalities such as air pollution and how regulations to limit these externalities contribute to gains and/or losses to the economy.

Walker is the faculty codirector of UC Berkeley’s Opportunity Lab Climate and Society Initiative. He is also a research associate at the Energy Institute at Berkeley’s Haas School of Business and a research associate affiliated with the NBER’s Environment and Energy Economics Program.

Walker received a Sloan Research Fellowship and an IZA Young Labor Economist Award. His work has been supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Smith Richardson Foundation. He received his PhD in economics from Columbia University.


1. Regulating Mismeasured Pollution: Implications of Firm Heterogeneity for Environmental Policy,” Lyubich E, Shapiro J, Walker R. NBER Working Paper 24228, January 2018, and AEA Papers and Proceedings 108, 2018, pp. 136–142.   Go to ⤴︎
2. Energy Cost Pass-Through in US Manufacturing: Estimates and Implications for Carbon Taxes,” Ganapati S, Shapiro JS, Walker R. NBER Working Paper 22281, July 2019, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 12(2), 2020, pp. 303–342.   Go to ⤴︎
3. The Transitional Costs of Sectoral Reallocation: Evidence from the Clean Air Act and the Workforce,” Walker WR. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128(4), 2013, pp. 1787–1835.   Go to ⤴︎
4. Consequences of the Clean Water Act and the Demand for Water Quality,” Keiser DA, Shapiro JS. NBER Working Paper 23070, June 2018, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics 134(1), 2019, pp. 349–396.   Go to ⤴︎
5. Is Air Pollution Regulation Too Stringent?” Shapiro JS, Walker R. NBER Working Paper 28199, December 2020.   Go to ⤴︎
6. Defensive Investments and the Demand for Air Quality: Evidence from the NOx Budget Program,” Deschenes O, Greenstone M, Shapiro JS. NBER Working Paper 18267, August 2012, and American Economic Review 107(10), 2017, pp. 2958–2989.   Go to ⤴︎
8. Bringing Satellite-Based Air Quality Estimates Down to Earth,” Fowlie M, Rubin E, Walker R. NBER Working Paper 25560, February 2019, and AEA Papers and Proceedings  109, 2019, pp. 283–288.   Go to ⤴︎
9. Why Is Pollution from US Manufacturing Declining? The Roles of Environmental Regulation, Productivity, and Trade,” Shapiro JS, Walker R. NBER Working Paper 20879, January 2015, and American Economic Review 108(12), 2018, pp. 3814–3854.   Go to ⤴︎
10. The Environmental Bias of Trade Policy,” Shapiro JS. NBER Working Paper 26845, May 2020, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics 136(2), 2021, pp. 831–886.     Go to ⤴︎
11. Regulating Untaxable Externalities: Are Vehicle Air Pollution Standards Effective and Efficient?” Jacobsen MR, Sallee J, Shapiro J, van Benthem A. NBER Project. 2022.   Go to ⤴︎

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