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About the Author(s)


Michael Kremer is a research associate in the NBER programs in Development Economics, Economic Fluctuations and Growth, Children, and Economics of Education. He is a University Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Chicago and the Harris School of Public Policy. He also is the founding director of the Development Innovation Lab at the Becker Friedman Institute.

Kremer pioneered the use of randomized controlled trials to evaluate policy interventions in developing countries, with particular emphasis on education, health care, and technological innovation. He shared the 2019 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel in recognition of this work. He also has played a leading role in working with foundations, NGOs, and other key stakeholders to promote development and distribution of vaccines in emerging nations, with particular emphasis on malarial and pneumococcal diseases.

Kremer was an undergraduate and received his PhD in economics from Harvard University. He taught at Harvard for two decades prior to joining the University of Chicago faculty in 2020, and was also a member of the MIT faculty for several years at the start of his career. He has been honored with a MacArthur Fellowship and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is married to Rachel Glennerster, who is currently the chief economist at the Department for International Development, the United Kingdom’s ministry for international development assistance.

Christopher Snyder is the Joel Z. and Susan Hyatt Professor of Economics at Dartmouth College, where he has worked for the past 15 years. He graduated from Fordham University with a BA in mathematics and economics in 1989 and received his PhD in economics from MIT in 1994.

Snyder is a research associate in the NBER’s Law and Economics Program. He is an editor of the Journal of Law and Economics, an associate editor of the Review of Industrial Organization, and the treasurer of the Industrial Organization Society.

Snyder specializes in the fields of industrial organization, law and economics, and microeconomic theory. He continues a general research interest in vertical contractual relations between firms with a recent focus on applications in healthcare markets. He is the coauthor with Walter Nicholson of two widely used textbooks in intermediate microeconomics.

Snyder served on expert committees that helped design the pilot Advance Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccine and the Global Fund’s program to stockpile drugs against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Most recently, he advised various international and US agencies on the design of the funding facilities to accelerate the development of a COVID-19 vaccine and coordinate its distribution.

Snyder lives in Hanover, New Hampshire, with his wife, Maura Doyle, who also teaches in Dartmouth’s Economics Department. They enjoy hiking, cross-country skiing, and other aspects of outdoor life in Hanover. They have three daughters at various stages in their graduate and undergraduate educations.


1. Preventives versus Treatments,” Kremer M, Snyder, CM. NBER Working Paper 21012, March 2015, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics 130(3), August 2015, pp. 1167–1239. Go to ⤴︎
2. The distortions in pharmaceutical markets when consumer values have a distribution of this form carry over to general product markets, as we show in “Worst-Case Bounds on R&D and Pricing Distortions: Theory with an Application Assuming Consumer Values Follow the World Income Distribution,” Kremer M, Snyder CM. NBER Working Paper 25119, October 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
3. Preventives versus Treatments Redux: Tighter Bounds on Distortions in Innovation Incentives with an Application to the Global Demand for HIV Pharmaceuticals,” Kremer M, Snyder CM. NBER Working Paper 24206, January 2018, and Review of Industrial Organization 53(1), August 2018, pp. 235–273.   Go to ⤴︎
4. Optimal Vaccine Subsidies for Endemic and Epidemic Diseases,” Goodkin-Gold M, Kremer M, Snyder CM, Williams H. NBER Working Paper 28085, November 2020.   Go to ⤴︎
5. Cost-Effectiveness and Economic Benefits of Vaccines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review,” Ozawa S, Mirelman A, Stack ML, Walker DG, Levine OS. Vaccine 31(1), December 2012, pp. 96–108.   Go to ⤴︎
6. Strong Medicine: Creating Incentives for Pharmaceutical Research on Neglected Diseases, Kremer M, Glennerster R. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. Additional work by Kremer on AMCs includes “Creating Markets for New Vaccines Part I: Rationale,” Kremer M. NBER Working Paper 7716, May 2000, and Innovation Policy and the Economy 1, pp. 35–72, “Creating Markets for New Vaccines Part II: Design Issues,” Kremer M. NBER Working Paper 7717, May 2000, and Innovation Policy and the Economy 1, pp. 73–118, and “Incentivizing Innovation: Adding to the Tool Kit,” Kremer M, Williams H. Innovation Policy and the Economy 10, pp. 1–17.   Go to ⤴︎
7. Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience,” Kremer M, Levin J, Snyder CM. NBER Working Paper 26775, February 2020, and American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings 110, May 2020, pp. 269–273. An early assessment of the AMC was provided by “Economic Perspectives on the Advance Market Commitment for Pneumococcal Vaccines,” Snyder CM, Begor W, Berndt E. Health Affairs 30(8), August 2011, pp. 1508–1517.   Go to ⤴︎
8. Designing Advance Market Commitments for New Vaccines,” Kremer M, Levin J, Snyder CM. NBER Working Paper 28168, December 2020.   Go to ⤴︎
9. A Long, Uneven, and Uncertain Ascent,” Gopinath G. IMFBlog, October 13, 2020.   Go to ⤴︎
10. “Investing in Accelerating a COVID-19 Vaccine,” Ahuja A, Athey S, Baker A, Budish E, Castillo JC, Glennerster R, Kominers SD, Kremer M, Lee J, Prendergast C, Snyder CM, Tabarrok A, Tan BJ, Więcek W. American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings, forthcoming 2021.     Go to ⤴︎
11. On the optimal design of a pure pull-funding mechanism, see “Designing Pull Funding for a COVID-19 Vaccine,” Snyder CM, Hoyt K, Gouglas D, Johnston T, Robinson J. Health Affairs 39(9), September 2020, pp. 1633–1642.   Go to ⤴︎

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