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About the Author(s)


  Kory Kroft is an associate professor in the Department of Economics and the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto. He is a research associate affiliated with the NBER's Public Economics Program, serves on the editorial board of the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, and is an associate editor of the Journal of the European Economic Association, the Canadian Journal of Economics, and International Tax and Public Finance.

His current research interests include the optimal design of taxation and social insurance policies, the causes and consequences of unemployment, imperfect competition in labor markets, and behavioral welfare economics.

Kroft received his B.A. from the University of Western Ontario, his M.A. from Queens University and Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Berkeley. He grew up in Toronto and currently lives there with his wife and daughters


Fabian Lange is the Canada Research Chair in Labour and Personnel Economics at McGill University, a research associate in the NBER's Labor Studies Program, and co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Economics.

His research interests concern how careers are shaped by processes of information revelation. In particular, he focuses on the role of performance management systems in modern corporations and on employer learning. He received the 2008 H. Gregg Lewis Prize and the IZA Young Labor Economist Award for his work in this area. Lange also studies mobility in the labor force, in particular between labor force states. He studies how changing mobility in the labor force interacts with the business cycle and the process by which individuals get shut out of the labor market.

Lange completed his Ph.D. in economics at the University of Chicago in 2004 and subsequently joined the Department of Economics at Yale University. In 2012, he moved to Montreal with his wife and newborn daughter to join the McGill University Department of Economics, where he is director of the industrial relations program and the founder of the Montreal Partnership for Human Resource Management, which fosters cooperation across the academic-corporate divide.


  Matthew J. Notowidigdo is a professor of economics in the Department of Economics and a professor of strategy in the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He is an associate editor of the Quarterly Journal of Economics, a co-editor of the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, and an NBER research associate affiliated with the Labor Studies Program, Health Care Program, and Public Economics Program.

He studies a broad set of topics in labor and health economics. In labor economics, he has studied the causes and consequences of unemployment duration dependence and long-term unemployment. His current research in health economics explores the economic consequences of hospitalizations and the relationship between health insurance and financial well-being.

Notowidigdo received his B.S., M.Eng., and Ph.D. from MIT. He grew up in Columbus, Ohio, and currently lives in Chicago with his wife and daughters.


1. "Long-Term Unemployment and the Great Recession: The Role of Composition, Duration, Dependence, and Non-Participation," Kroft K, Notowidigdo M, Katz L. NBER Working Paper 20273, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎
2. "Understanding and Responding to Persistently High Unemployment," Congressional Budget Office study, February 2012. Go to ⤴︎
3. "Duration Dependence and Labor Market Conditions: Theory and Evidence from a Field Experiment," Kroft K, Lange F, Notowidigdo M. NBER Working Paper 18387, September 2012. Go to ⤴︎
4. "Does Delay Cause Decay? The Effect of Administrative Decision Time on the Labor Force Participation and Earnings of Disability Applicants," Autor D, Maestas N, Mullen K, Strand A. NBER Working Paper 20840, January 2015. Go to ⤴︎
5. "The Causal Effect of Unemployment Duration on Wages: Evidence from Unemployment Insurance Extensions," Schmieder J, Von Wachter T, Bender S. NBER Working Paper 19772, December 2013. Go to ⤴︎
6. "Statistical Discrimination and Duration Dependence in the Job Finding Rate," Jarosch G, Pilossoph L. NBER Working Paper 24200, January 2018. Go to ⤴︎
7. "Labor Market Dynamics and Unemployment: A Reconsideration," Clark K, Summers L, Holt C, Hall R, Baily N, Clark K. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1979(1), pp. 13–72. Go to ⤴︎
8. "A Comparative Analysis of Unemployment in Canada and the United States," Card D, Riddell W. In Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, Card D, Freeman R, editors, pp. 149–190. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Go to ⤴︎
9. "The Measurement of Unemployment: An Empirical Approach," Jones S, Riddell W. Econometrica, 67(1), December 2003, pp. 147–162. Go to ⤴︎
10. "Are the Long-Term Unemployed on the Margins of the Labor Market?" Krueger A, Cramer J, Cho D. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 45(1), Spring 2014, pp. 229–280. Go to ⤴︎
11. "Long Time Out: Unemployment and Joblessness in Canada and the United States," Kroft K, Lange F, Notowidigdo M, Tudball M. NBER Working Paper 25236, November 2018. Go to ⤴︎
12. "A Macroeconomic Theory of Optimal Unemployment Insurance," Landais C, Michaillat P, Saez E. NBER Working Paper 16526, November 2010. Go to ⤴︎
13. "Decomposing Duration Dependence in a Stopping Time Model," Alvarez F, Borovičková K, Shimer R. NBER Working Paper 22188, April 2016. "The Consequences of Long-Term Unemployment: Evidence from Linked Survey and Administrative Data," Abraham K, Haltiwanger J, Sandusky K, Spletzer J, NBER Working Paper 22665. Go to ⤴︎
14. "Factors Determining Callbacks to Job Applications by the Unemployed: An Audit Study," Farber H, Silverman D, Von Wachter T. NBER Working Paper 21689, October 2015. Go to ⤴︎
15. "Whom Do Employers Want? The Role of Recent Employment and Unemployment Status and Age," Farber H, Herbst C, Silverman D, Von Wachter T. NBER Working Paper 24605, May 2018. Go to ⤴︎
16. "Do Employers Use Unemployment as a Sorting Criterion When Hiring? Evidence from a Field Experiment," Eriksson S, Rooth D. American Economic Review, 104(3), March 2014, pp. 1014–1039. Go to ⤴︎
17. Ibid, NBER Working Paper 21689. See endnote 14. Go to ⤴︎
18. Ibid, NBER Working Paper 18387. See endnote 3. Go to ⤴︎
19. "Measuring Labor-Force Participation and the Incidence and Duration of Unemployment," Ahn H, Hamilton J. Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2019-035, May 2019. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Go to ⤴︎
20. "Measuring Heterogeneity in Job Finding Rates among the Non-Employed Using Labor Force Status Histories," Kudlyak M, Lange F. Working Paper 2017-20, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Go to ⤴︎
21. "Explaining the Decline in the U.S. Employment-to-Population Ratio: A Review of the Evidence," Abraham K, Kearney M. NBER Working Paper 24333, February 2018. Go to ⤴︎

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