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Endnotes

1. "Long-Term Unemployment and the Great Recession: The Role of Composition, Duration, Dependence, and Non-Participation," Kroft K, Notowidigdo M, Katz L. NBER Working Paper 20273, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎
2. "Understanding and Responding to Persistently High Unemployment," Congressional Budget Office study, February 2012. Go to ⤴︎
3. "Duration Dependence and Labor Market Conditions: Theory and Evidence from a Field Experiment," Kroft K, Lange F, Notowidigdo M. NBER Working Paper 18387, September 2012. Go to ⤴︎
4. "Does Delay Cause Decay? The Effect of Administrative Decision Time on the Labor Force Participation and Earnings of Disability Applicants," Autor D, Maestas N, Mullen K, Strand A. NBER Working Paper 20840, January 2015. Go to ⤴︎
5. "The Causal Effect of Unemployment Duration on Wages: Evidence from Unemployment Insurance Extensions," Schmieder J, Von Wachter T, Bender S. NBER Working Paper 19772, December 2013. Go to ⤴︎
6. "Statistical Discrimination and Duration Dependence in the Job Finding Rate," Jarosch G, Pilossoph L. NBER Working Paper 24200, January 2018. Go to ⤴︎
7. "Labor Market Dynamics and Unemployment: A Reconsideration," Clark K, Summers L, Holt C, Hall R, Baily N, Clark K. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1979(1), pp. 13–72. Go to ⤴︎
8. "A Comparative Analysis of Unemployment in Canada and the United States," Card D, Riddell W. In Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, Card D, Freeman R, editors, pp. 149–190. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Go to ⤴︎
9. "The Measurement of Unemployment: An Empirical Approach," Jones S, Riddell W. Econometrica, 67(1), December 2003, pp. 147–162. Go to ⤴︎
10. "Are the Long-Term Unemployed on the Margins of the Labor Market?" Krueger A, Cramer J, Cho D. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 45(1), Spring 2014, pp. 229–280. Go to ⤴︎
11. "Long Time Out: Unemployment and Joblessness in Canada and the United States," Kroft K, Lange F, Notowidigdo M, Tudball M. NBER Working Paper 25236, November 2018. Go to ⤴︎
12. "A Macroeconomic Theory of Optimal Unemployment Insurance," Landais C, Michaillat P, Saez E. NBER Working Paper 16526, November 2010. Go to ⤴︎
13. "Decomposing Duration Dependence in a Stopping Time Model," Alvarez F, Borovičková K, Shimer R. NBER Working Paper 22188, April 2016. "The Consequences of Long-Term Unemployment: Evidence from Linked Survey and Administrative Data," Abraham K, Haltiwanger J, Sandusky K, Spletzer J, NBER Working Paper 22665. Go to ⤴︎
14. "Factors Determining Callbacks to Job Applications by the Unemployed: An Audit Study," Farber H, Silverman D, Von Wachter T. NBER Working Paper 21689, October 2015. Go to ⤴︎
15. "Whom Do Employers Want? The Role of Recent Employment and Unemployment Status and Age," Farber H, Herbst C, Silverman D, Von Wachter T. NBER Working Paper 24605, May 2018. Go to ⤴︎
16. "Do Employers Use Unemployment as a Sorting Criterion When Hiring? Evidence from a Field Experiment," Eriksson S, Rooth D. American Economic Review, 104(3), March 2014, pp. 1014–1039. Go to ⤴︎
17. Ibid, NBER Working Paper 21689. See endnote 14. Go to ⤴︎
18. Ibid, NBER Working Paper 18387. See endnote 3. Go to ⤴︎
19. "Measuring Labor-Force Participation and the Incidence and Duration of Unemployment," Ahn H, Hamilton J. Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2019-035, May 2019. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Go to ⤴︎
20. "Measuring Heterogeneity in Job Finding Rates among the Non-Employed Using Labor Force Status Histories," Kudlyak M, Lange F. Working Paper 2017-20, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Go to ⤴︎
21. "Explaining the Decline in the U.S. Employment-to-Population Ratio: A Review of the Evidence," Abraham K, Kearney M. NBER Working Paper 24333, February 2018. Go to ⤴︎

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