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About the Author(s)

Duncan Thomas Profile

Duncan Thomas, the Norb F. Schaefer Professor of International Studies in Duke University's Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, has been director of the NBER's Development Economics Program since 2012.

Endnotes

1. A. Banerjee, D. Karlan, R. Osei, H. Trachtman, and C. Udry, "Unpacking a Multi-Faceted Program to Build Sustainable Income for the Very Poor," NBER Working Paper 24271, February 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
2. A. Banerjee, E. Duflo, N. Goldberg, D. Karlan, R. Osei, W. Parienté, J. Shapiro, B. Thuysbaert, and C. Udry, "A Multifaceted Program Causes Lasting Progress for the Very Poor: Evidence from Six Countries," Science, 348(6236):1260799), 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
3. A. Banerjee, E. Duflo, R. Chattopadhyay, and J. Shapiro, "The Long term Impacts of a 'Graduation' Program: Evidence from West Bengal," MIT Working Paper, September 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
4. E. Duflo, A. Banerjee, R. Glennerster, and C. Kinnan, "The Miracle of Microfinance? Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation," NBER Working Paper 18950, May 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
5. F. Buera, J. Kaboski, and Y. Shin, "Taking Stock of the Evidence on Micro-Financial Interventions," NBER Working Paper 22674, September 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
6. L. Beaman, D. Karlan, B. Thuysbaert, and C. Udry, "Self-Selection into Credit Markets: Evidence from Agriculture in Mali," NBER Working Paper 20387, August 2014, revised August 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
7. P. Maitra, S. Mitra, D. Mookherjee, A. Motta, and S. Visaria, "Financing Smallholder Agriculture: An Experiment with Agent-Intermediated Microloans in India," NBER Working Paper 20709, November 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
8. E. Breza and C. Kinnan, "Measuring the Equilibrium Impacts of Credit: Evidence from the Indian Microfinance Crisis," NBER Working Paper 24329, February 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
9. E. Frankenberg and D. Thomas, "Human Capital and Shocks: Evidence on Education, Health and Nutrition," NBER Working Paper 23347, April 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
10. P. Dupas, D. Karlan, J. Robinson, and D. Ubfal, "Banking the Unbanked? Evidence From Three Countries," NBER Working Paper 22463, July 2016, revised October 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
11. S. Schaner, "The Persistent Power of Behavioral Change: Long-Run Impacts of Temporary Savings Subsidies for the Poor," NBER Working Paper 22534, August 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
12. P. Dupas, A. Keats, and J. Robinson, "The Effect of Savings Accounts on Interpersonal Financial Relationships: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Rural Kenya," NBER Working Paper 21339, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
13. D. Karlan, B. Savonitto, B. Thuysbaert, and C. Udry, "Impact of Savings Groups on the Lives of the Poor," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(12), pp.3079–84, 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
14. O. Attanasio, A. Guarin, C. Medina, and C. Meghir, "Long Term Impacts of Vouchers for Vocational Training: Experimental Evidence for Colombia," NBER Working Paper 21390, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
15. P. Acevedo, G. Cruces, P. Gertler, and S. Martinez, "Living Up to Expectations: How Job Training Made Women Better Off and Men Worse Off," NBER Working Paper 23264, March 2017. Go to ⤴︎
16. A. Adhvaryu, N. Kala, and A. Nyshadham, "The Skills to Pay the Bills: Returns to On-the-job Soft Skills Training," NBER Working Paper 24313, February 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
17. A. Banerjee, D. Karlan, R. Osei, H. Trachtman, and C. Udry, "Unpacking a Multi-Faceted Program to Build Sustainable Income for the Very Poor," NBER Working Paper 24271, February 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
18. S. Parker and T. Vogl, "Do Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Economic Outcomes in the Next Generation? Evidence from Mexico," NBER Working Paper 24303, February 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
19. A. Kugler and I. Rojas, "Do CCTs Improve Employment and Earnings in the Very Long-Term? Evidence from Mexico," NBER Working Paper 24248, January 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
20. M. Ikegami, M. Carter, C. Barrett, and S. Janzen, "Poverty Traps and the Social Protection Paradox," NBER Working Paper 22714, October 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
21. A. Foster and M. Rosenzweig, "Are There Too Many Farms in the World? Labor-Market Transaction Costs, Machine Capacities, and Optimal Farm Size," NBER Working Paper 23909, October 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
22. D. LaFave and D. Thomas, "Farms, Families, and Markets: New Evidence on Completeness of Markets in Agricultural Settings," NBER Working Paper 20699, November 2014, revised May 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
23. S. Kaur, "Nominal Wage Rigidity in Village Labor Markets," NBER Working Paper 20770, December 2014, revised November 2017. Go to ⤴︎
24. J. Cai, A. Janvry, and E. Sadoulet, "Subsidy Policies and Insurance Demand," NBER Working Paper 22702, September 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
25. A. Mobarak and M. Rosenzweig, "Risk, Insurance and Wages in General Equilibrium," NBER Working Paper  19811, January 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
26. M. Rosenzweig and C. Udry, "Forecasting Profitability," NBER Working Paper 19334, August 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
27. M. Rosenzweig and C. Udry, "Rainfall Forecasts, Weather and Wages over the Agricultural Production Cycle," NBER Working Paper 19808, January 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
28. G. Bryan and M. Morten, "The Aggregate Productivity Effects of Internal Migration: Evidence from Indonesia," NBER Working Paper 23540, June 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
29. M. Morten, "Temporary Migration and Endogenous Risk Sharing in Village India," NBER Working Paper 22159, April 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
30. D. Lagakos, A. Mobarak, and M. Waugh, "The Welfare Effects of Encouraging Rural-Urban Migration," NBER Working Paper 24193, January 2018.   Go to ⤴︎
31. C. Hsieh and B. Olken, "The Missing 'Missing Middle'," NBER Working Paper 19966, March 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
32. D. Karlan, R. Knight, and C. Udry, "Hoping to Win, Expected to Lose: Theory and Lessons on Micro Enterprise Development," NBER Working Paper 18325, August 2012. Go to ⤴︎
33. M. Fafchamps, D. McKenzie, S. Quinn, and C. Woodruff, "When is Capital Enough to get Female Microenterprises Growing? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Ghana," NBER Working Paper 17207, July 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
34. A. Bernhardt, E. Field, R. Pande, and N. Rigol, "Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs," NBER Working Paper 23358, April 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
35. D. McKenzie and C. Woodruff, "Business Practices in Small Firms in Developing Countries," NBER Working Paper 21505, August 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
36. E. Duflo, "The Economist as Plumber," NBER Working Paper 23213, March 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
37. F. Finan, B. Olken, and R. Pande, "The Personnel Economics of the State," NBER Working Paper 21825, December 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
38. E. Dal Bo, F. Finan, and M. Rossi, "Strengthening State Capabilities: The Role of Financial Incentives in the Call to Public Service," NBER Working Paper 18156, June 2012.   Go to ⤴︎
39. E. Duflo, M. Greenstone, R. Pande, and N. Ryan, "Truth-telling by Third-party Auditors and the Response of Polluting Firms: Experimental Evidence from India," NBER Working Paper 19259, July 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
40. A. Banerjee, R. Hanna, J. Kyle, B. Olken, and S. Sumarto, "The Power of Transparency: Information, Identification Cards and Food Subsidy Programs in Indonesia," NBER Working Paper 20923, February 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
41. A. Banerjee, R. Hanna, J. Kyle, B. Olken, and S. Sumarto, "Contracting out the Last-Mile of Service Delivery: Subsidized Food Distribution in Indonesia," NBER Working Paper 21837, December 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
42. A. Banerjee, E. Duflo, C. Imbert, S. Mathew, and R. Pande, "E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India," NBER Working Paper 22803, November 2016.   Go to ⤴︎
43. K. Muralidharan, P. Niehaus, and S. Sukhtankar, "Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India," NBER Working Paper 19999, March 2014, revised October 2014.   Go to ⤴︎
44. S. Lewis-Faupel, Y. Neggers, B. Olken, and R. Pande, "Can Electronic Procurement Improve Infrastructure Provision? Evidence From Public Works in India and Indonesia," NBER Working Paper 20344, July 2014. Go to ⤴︎

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