Inside the Mind of a Stock Market Crash
We analyze how investor expectations about economic growth and stock returns changed during the February-March 2020 stock market crash induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during the subsequent partial stock market recovery. We surveyed retail investors who are clients of Vanguard at three points in time: (i) on February 11-12, around the all-time stock market high, (ii) on March 11-12, after the stock market had collapsed by over 20%, and (iii) on April 16-17, after the market had rallied 25% from its lowest point. Following the crash, the average investor turned more pessimistic about the short-run performance of both the stock market and the real economy. Investors also perceived higher probabilities of both further extreme stock market declines and large declines in short-run real economic activity. In contrast, investor expectations about long-run (10-year) economic and stock market outcomes remained largely unchanged, and, if anything, improved. Disagreement among investors about economic and stock market outcomes also increased substantially following the stock market crash, with the disagreement persisting through the partial market recovery. Those respondents who were the most optimistic in February saw the largest decline in expectations, and sold the most equity. Those respondents who were the most pessimistic in February largely left their portfolios unchanged during and after the crash.
Stephen Utkus is employed at Vanguard in a research capacity. Giglio, Maggiori, and Stroebel are unpaid consultants at Vanguard in order to access the anonymized data. Vanguard provided anonymized portfolio and survey data as well as survey research services for this project. We thank Jose Scheinkman and Alp Simsek as well as seminar participants at Stanford for helpful comments. The authors would also like to thank Catherine Clinton, Sophia Bunyaraksh, and Jean Young at Vanguard for their assistance with the survey and with understanding the data. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.