Women, Work, and Family
This chapter focuses on women, work, and family, with a particular focus on differences by educational attainment. First, we review long-term trends regarding family structure, participation in the labor market, and time spent in household production, including time with children. In looking at family, we focus on mothers with children. Next we examine key challenges faced by mothers as they seek to combine motherhood and paid work: workforce interruptions associated with childbearing, the impact of home and family responsibilities, and constraints posed by workplace culture. We also consider the role that gendered norms play in shaping outcomes for mothers. We conclude by discussing policies that have the potential to increase gender equality in the workplace and mitigate the considerable conflicts faced by many women as they seek to balance work and family.
Prepared for the Oxford Handbook of Women and the Economy, Susan L. Averett, Laura M. Argys and Saul D. Hoffman, eds, Oxford University Press (forthcoming). The authors thank Andrew Tipping for his careful research assistance. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Francine D. Blau and Anne E. Winkler, “Women, Work, and Family,” Oxford Handbook of Women and the Economy, Susan L. Averett, Laura M. Argys, and Saul D. Hoffman, eds., (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2018).