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About the Author(s)


Sandra E. Black holds the Audre and Bernard Rapoport Centennial Chair in Economics and Public Affairs and is a professor of economics at the University of Texas, Austin. She is a research associate in the NBERs programs on Labor Studies, Education, and Children, an editor of the Journal of Labor Economics, and a non-resident scholar at the Brookings Institution.

Black served as a member of President Obama's Council of Economic Advisers, August 2015–January 2017. Prior to arriving at the University of Texas, she was an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and a professor in the Department of Economics at UCLA. She was a co-editor of The Journal of Human Resources, 2005–12, and editor-in-chief from 2012–15. She has been elected a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists, is an affiliated faculty member at the Norwegian School of Economics, and in January will become a member of the board of the Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession.

Black's research focuses on the effects of early life experiences on the long-run outcomes of children, and on issues of gender and discrimination. She was born and raised in Los Angeles and received her B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley and her Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. She lives in Austin with her husband.


1. G. Becker, "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," in Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, New York, Columbia University Press, 1960, pp. 209-40; G. Becker and H. Lewis, "Interaction Between Quantity and Quality of Children," in Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, 1974, pp. 81-90; G. Becker and N. Tomes, "Child Endowments, and the Quantity and Quality of Children," NBER Working Paper 123, February 1976.   Go to ⤴︎
2. S. Black, P. Devereux, and K. Salvanes, "The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Composition on Children's Education" NBER Working Paper 10720, September 2004, and Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2), 2005, pp. 669-700.   Go to ⤴︎
3. S. Black, P. Devereux, and K. Salvanes, "Older and Wiser? Birth Order and the IQ of Young Men," NBER Working Paper 13237, July 2007, and CESifo Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 103-20, March 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
4. J. Rodgers, H. Cleveland, E. van den Oord, and D. Rowe, "Resolving the Debate Over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence," American Psychologist, 55(6), 2000, pp. 599-612. Go to ⤴︎
5. S. Black, E. Gronqvist, and B. Ockert, "Born to Lead? The Effect of Birth Order on Non-Cognitive Abilities," NBER Working Paper 23393, May 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
6. L. Borghans, A. Duckworth, J. Heckman, and B. ter Weel, "The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits," Journal of Human Resources, 43, 2008, pp. 972-1059.   Go to ⤴︎
7. S. Black, P. Devereux, K. Salvanes, "Healthy (?), Wealthy, and Wise: Birth Order and Adult Health, NBER Working Paper 21337, July 2015.   Go to ⤴︎
8. L. Argys, D. Rees, S. Averett, and B. Witoonchart, "Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior," Economic Inquiry, 44(2), 2006, pp. 215-33.   Go to ⤴︎
9. F. Cunha and J. Heckman, "The Technology of Skill Formation," NBER Working Paper 12840, January 2007. Go to ⤴︎
10. R. Zajonc and G. Markus, "Birth Order and Intellectual Development," Psychological Review, 82(1), 1975, pp. 74-88; R. Zajonc, "Family Configuration and Intelligence," Science, 192(4236), 1976, pp. 227-36; J. Price, "Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?" in Journal of Human Resources, 43(1), 2008, pp. 240-65; J.Lehmann, A. Nuevo-Chiquero, and M. Vidal-Fernandez, "The Early Origins of Birth Order Differences in Children's Outcomes and Parental Behavior," forthcoming in Journal of Human Resources.   Go to ⤴︎
11. V. Hotz and J. Pantano, "Strategic Parenting, Birth Order, and School Performance," NBER Working Paper 19542, October 2013, and Journal of Population Economics, 28(4), 2015, pp. 911-936.   Go to ⤴︎
12. F. Sulloway, Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives, New York, Pantheon Books, 1996. Go to ⤴︎
13. S. Breining, J. Doyle, D. Figlio, K. Karbownik, J. Roth, "Birth Order and Delinquency: Evidence from Denmark and Florida," NBER Working Paper 23038, January 2017. Go to ⤴︎


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