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About the Author(s)


William Nordhaus is Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University and a research associate in four NBER Programs: Economic Fluctuations and Growth; Environment and Energy Economics; Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship; and Public Economics. He is a pioneer in analyzing economic consequences of climate change and one of the leading global authorities on climate policy.

Nordhaus developed the DICE and RICE models of the economics of climate change, which are widely used in research on climate-change economics and policies. He also has studied a range of additional topics in both micro- and macroeconomics, including wage and price behavior, health economics, augmented national accounting, the political business cycle, and the dynamics of productivity. He is the author of three treatises on climate policy, The Climate Casino, Managing the Global Commons, and Warming the World, and is a co-author, with the late Paul Samuelson, of the classic textbook, Economics.

Nordhaus served as president of the American Economic Association (AEA) in 2015. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as a Distinguished Fellow of the AEA. He also has been a member of the President's Council of Economic Advisers (1977–9), provost of Yale University (1986–8), a member of the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity since 1972, and a director and chair (2013–14) of the board of directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.

A native of Albuquerque, New Mexico, who received his B.A. from Yale and his Ph.D. from MIT, Nordhaus lives in New Haven with his wife, Barbara, who works at the Yale Child Study Center.


1. This research report draws upon W. D. Nordhaus, The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013; W. D. Nordhaus, "Integrated Economic and Climate Modeling," in Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, P. Dixon and D. Jorgenson, eds.: Elsevier, 2013, pp. 1069–131; W. D. Nordhaus, "Projections and Uncertainties About Climate Change in an Era of Minimal Climate Policies," NBER Working Paper 22933, December 2016, revised September 2017. Go to ⤴︎
2. Report of the Modeling Resource Group, Synthesis Panel of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, National Research Council, Energy Modeling for an Uncertain Future, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 1978.   Go to ⤴︎
3. P. A. Samuelson, "Market Mechanisms and Maximization," Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, P-69, March 28, 1949.   Go to ⤴︎
4. W. D. Nordhaus, "Can We Control Carbon Dioxide?" International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Working Paper, WP 75-63, Laxenburg, Austria, June 1975; W. D. Nordhaus, "Economic Growth and Climate: The Case of Carbon Dioxide," American Economic Review, 67(1), 1977, pp. 341–6. Go to ⤴︎
5. A. S. Manne, "ETA: A Model for Energy Technology Assessment," Bell Journal of Economics, 7(2), 1976, pp. 379-406.   Go to ⤴︎
6. W. D. Nordhaus, "An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases," Science, 258, 1992, pp. 1315–9; W. D. Nordhaus, Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994.   Go to ⤴︎
7. W. D. Nordhaus, P. Sztorc, "DICE 2013R: Introduction and User's Manual," October 2013.   Go to ⤴︎
8. W. D. Nordhaus, "Projections and Uncertainties about Climate Change in an Era of Minimal Climate Policies," NBER Working Paper 22933, December 2016, revised September 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
9. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2007; W. D. Nordhaus, "The 'Stern Review' on the Economics of Climate Change," NBER Working Paper 12741, December 2006; and "A Review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change," Journal of Economic Literature, 45, September 2007, pp. 686–702.   Go to ⤴︎
10. W. D. Nordhaus, "Revisiting the Social Cost of Carbon," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(7), 2017, pp. 1518–23.   Go to ⤴︎
11. W. D. Nordhaus, "The Economics of Hurricanes in the United States," NBER Working Paper 12813, December 2006, and Climate Change Economics, 2010, 1 (1), pp. 1–20.   Go to ⤴︎
12. W. D. Nordhaus and A. Moffat, "A Survey of Global Impacts of Climate Change: Replication, Survey Methods, and a Statistical Analysis," NBER Working Paper 23646, August 2017.   Go to ⤴︎
13. W. D. Nordhaus, "Evolution of Assessments of the Economics of Global Warming: Changes in the DICE Model, 1992–2017," NBER Working Paper 23319, April 2017. Go to ⤴︎

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