Meetings: Spring, 2015

Featured in print Reporter

Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship

The NBER's Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Program, co-directed by Nicholas Bloom of Stanford University and Josh Lerner of Harvard University, met in Cambridge on March 20. These papers were discussed:

  • David C. Chan, Jr., Stanford University and NBER, "The Efficiency of Slacking Off: Evidence from the Emergency Department" (NBER Working Paper No. 20068)
  • Ariel Dora Stern, Harvard University, "Innovation under Regulatory Uncertainty: Evidence from Medical Technology"
  • Lee G. Branstetter, Carnegie Mellon University and NBER; Chirantan Chatterjee, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore; and Matthew Higgins, Georgia Institute of Technology and NBER, "Starving or Fattening the Golden Goose? Generic Entry and the Incentives for Early-Stage Pharmaceutical Innovation" (NBER Working Paper No. 20532)
  • Prithwiraj Choudhury and Tarun Khanna, Harvard University, "Ex-Ante Information Provision and Innovation: Natural Experiment of Herbal Patent Prior Art Adoption at the USPTO and EPO"
  • Paul Gompers, Harvard University and NBER; Steven N. Kaplan, University of Chicago and NBER; and Vladimir Mukharlyamov, Harvard University, "What Do Private Equity Firms Say They Do?" (NBER Working Paper No. 21133)
  • Benjamin Pugsley and Ayşegül Şahin, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, "Grown-Up Business Cycles"
  • Antoine Dechezleprêtre and Ralf Martin, London School of Economics, and Myra Mohnen, University College London, "Knowledge Spillovers from Clean and Dirty Technologies


International Trade and Investment

The NBER's Program on International Trade and Investment, directed by Robert Feenstra of the University of California, Davis, met in Cambridge on March 20-21. These papers were discussed:

  • Michael Dickstein, Stanford University and NBER, and Eduardo Morales, Princeton University and NBER, "What do Exporters Know?"
  • William Lincoln, Johns Hopkins University, and Andrew McCallum, Federal Reserve Board, "The Rise of Exporting By U.S. Firms"
  • Thibault Fally, University of California, Berkeley, and Russell Hillberry, The World Bank, "A Coasian Model of International Production Chains"
  • Emily Blanchard, Dartmouth College, and William Olney, Williams College, "Globalization and Human Capital Investment: How Export Composition Drives Educational Attainment"
  • Ryan Monarch, Federal Reserve Board, "It's Not You, It's Me: Breakups in U.S.-China Trade Relationships"
  • Illenin Kondo, Federal Reserve Board, "Trade Reforms, Foreign Competition, and Labor Market Adjustments in the U.S."
  • Emily BlanchardChad Bown, The World Bank; and Robert Johnson, Dartmouth College and NBER, "Global Supply Chains and Trade Policy"
  • Delina Agnosteva and Yoto Yotov, Drexel University, and James Anderson, Boston College and NBER, "Intra-National Trade Costs: Assaying Regional Frictions


Environmental and Energy Economics

The NBER's Program on Environmental and Energy Economics met in Cambridge on March 26-27. Program Director Don Fullerton of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Research Associate Matthew E. Kahn of the University of California, Los Angeles, organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Ann Ferris, Ronald Shadbegian, and Ann Wolverton, Environmental Protection Agency, and Wayne B. Gray, Clark University and NBER, "Do Renewable Portfolio Standards Affect Manufacturing Activity Through Higher Electricity Prices?"
  • Lucas W. Davis, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER, and Gilbert E. Metcalf, Tufts University and NBER, "Does Better Information Lead to Better Choices? Evidence from Energy-Efficiency Labels" (NBER Working Paper No. 20720)
  • Garth Heutel, Georgia State University and NBER; Juan Moreno-Cruz, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Soheil Shayegh, Carnegie Institution of Washington, "Solar Geoengineering, Uncertainty, and the Social Cost of Carbon"
  • Stephen P. Holland, University of North Carolina at Greensboro and NBER; Erin T. Mansur, Dartmouth College and NBER; Nicholas Muller, Middlebury College and NBER; and Andrew Yates, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "Measuring the Spatial Heterogeneity in Environmental Externalities from Driving: A Comparison of Gasoline and Electric Vehicles"
  • Klaus Desmet, Southern Methodist University; Dávid Krisztián Nagy, Princeton University; and Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, Princeton University and NBER, "The Geography of Development: Evaluating Migration Restrictions and Coastal Flooding" (NBER Working Paper No. 21087)
  • Marco Gonzalez-Navarro, University of Toronto, and Matthew Turner, Brown University, "Subways and Urban Growth: Evidence from Earth"
  • Christopher Timmins, Duke University and NBER, and Ashley Vissing, Duke University, "Valuing Leases for Shale Gas Development"
  • Christiane Baumeister, Bank of Canada, and Lutz Kilian, University of Michigan, "A General Approach to Recovering Market Expectations from Futures Prices with an Application to Crude Oil"
  • Mark R. Jacobsen, University of California, San Diego, and NBER; Christopher R. Knittel, MIT and NBER; James M. Sallee, University of Chicago and NBER; and Arthur van Benthem, University of Pennsylvania and NBER, "The Implications of Heterogeneity for the Regulation of Energy-Consuming Durable Goods"


International Finance and Macroeconomics

The NBER's Program on International Finance and Macroeconomics met in Cambridge on March 27. Research Associates Gita Gopinath and Laura Alfaro of Harvard University organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Emmanuel Farhi, Harvard University and NBER, and Jean Tirole, Toulouse School of Economics, "Deadly Embrace: Sovereign and Financial Balance Sheets Doom Loops"
  • Raquel Fernández, New York University and NBER, and Alberto Martin, CREI (Barcelona), "The Long and the Short of It: Sovereign Debt Crises and Debt Maturity" (NBER Working Paper No. 20786)
  • Liliana Varela, University of Houston, "Reallocation, Competition and Productivity: Evidence from a Financial Liberalization Episode"
  • David Atkin, University of California, Los Angeles, and NBER; Benjamin Faber, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER; and Marco Gonzalez-Navarro, University of Toronto, "Retail Globalization and Household Welfare: Evidence from Mexico" (NBER Working Paper No. 21176)
  • Benjamin Hébert and Jesse Schreger, Harvard University, "The Costs of Sovereign Default: Evidence from Argentina"
  • Rosen Valchev, Duke University, "Exchange Rates and UIP Violations at Short and Long Horizons"
  • Shaghil AhmedStephanie E. Curcuru, and Andrei Zlate, Federal Reserve Board, and Francis E. Warnock, University of Virginia and NBER, "The Two Components of International Capital Flows"


Public Economics

The NBER's Program on Public Economics met in Cambridge on April 9-10. Program Co-director Raj Chetty of Harvard University and Research Associate John N. Friedman of Brown University organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

Behavioral Responses to Taxation: Research Using Administrative Tax Data

  • George Bulman, University of California, Santa Cruz, and Caroline M. Hoxby, Stanford University and NBER, "The Returns to the Federal Tax Credits for Higher Education" (NBER Working Paper No. 20833)
  • Patricia Tong, Department of the Treasury, and Li Zhou, University of Alberta, "The Impact of Place-Based Employment Tax Credits on Local Labor: Evidence from Tax Data"
  • Michael P. Devereux and Li Liu, University of Oxford, "Incorporation for Investment"
  • David Joulfaian, Department of the Treasury; James M. Poterba, MIT and NBER; and Robert Gordon, Twenty-First Securities Corporation, "Choosing Between the Estate Tax and Basis Carryover Regime of 2010"
  • Jason M. DeBacker, Middle Tennessee State University; Bradley Heim and Anh Tran, Indiana University; and Alexander Yuskavage, Department of the Treasury, "Once Bitten, Twice Shy? The Lasting Impact of IRS Audits on Individual Tax Reporting"
  • Julie Berry Cullen, University of California, San Diego, and NBER; Nicholas Turner, Department of the Treasury; and Ebonya L. Washington, Yale University and NBER, "Political Alignment and Tax Evasion"
  • Tatyana Deryugina, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Laura Kawano, Department of the Treasury; and Steven D. Levitt, University of Chicago and NBER, "The Economic Impact of Hurricane Katrina on its Victims: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns" (NBER Working Paper No. 20713)
  • Kirk B. Doran, University of Notre Dame; Alexander M. Gelber, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER; and Adam Isen, Department of the Treasury, "The Effects of High-Skilled Immigration on Firms: Evidence from H-1B Visa Lotteries" (NBER Working Paper No. 20668)


Public Economics Spring Program Meeting

  • Michael Geruso, University of Texas at Austin and NBER, and Timothy J. Layton, Harvard University, "Upcoding or Selection? Evidence from Medicare on Squishy Risk Adjustment" (NBER Working Paper No. 21222)
  • Jonas Kolsrud, Uppsala University; Camille Landais and Johannes Spinnewijn, London School of Economics; and Peter Nilsson, Stockholm University, "The Optimal Timing of Unemployment Benefits: Theory and Evidence from Sweden"
  • John BeshearsDavid Laibson, and Brigitte C. Madrian, Harvard University and NBER, and James J. Choi, Yale University and NBER, "Does Front-Loading Taxation Increase Savings? Evidence from Roth 401(k) Introductions" (NBER Working Paper No. 20738)
  • François Gerard, Columbia University, and Francisco J. M. Costa, Getúlio Vargas Foundation (Rio de Janeiro), "Hysteresis and the Social Cost of Corrective Policies: Evidence from a Temporary Energy Saving Program"
  • Patrick M. Kline and Christopher R. Walters, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER, "Evaluating Public Programs with Close Substitutes: The Case of Head Start"
  • Justine S. Hastings, Brown University and NBER; Christopher A. Neilson, New York University; and Seth D. Zimmerman, University of Chicago, "The Effects of Earnings Disclosure on College Enrollment Decisions"


Corporate Finance

The NBER's Program on Corporate Finance met at the University of Chicago on April 10. Research Associates Thomas Philippon and Jeffrey Wurgler of New York University organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Erik P. Gilje, University of Pennsylvania, "Do Firms Engage in Risk-Shifting? Empirical Evidence"
  • Xavier Giroud, MIT and NBER, and Holger Mueller, New York University and NBER, "Firm Leverage and Unemployment during the Great Recession" (NBER Working Paper No. 21076)
  • Manuel Adelino, Duke University; Antoinette Schoar, MIT and NBER; and Felipe Severino, Dartmouth College, "Changes in Buyer Composition and the Expansion of Credit during the Boom" (NBER Working Paper No. 20848)
  • Atif Mian, Princeton University and NBER, and Amir Sufi, University of Chicago and NBER, "Fraudulent Income Overstatement on Mortgage Applications during the Credit Expansion of 2002 to 2005" (NBER Working Paper No. 20947)
  • Claire Célérier, University of Zurich, and Boris Vallée, Harvard University, "Returns to Talent and the Finance Wage Premium"
  • Harrison Hong, Princeton University and NBER, and Inessa Liskovich, Princeton University, "Crime, Punishment and the Halo Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility"
  • José Azar and Isabel K. Tecu, Charles River Associates, and Martin C. Schmalz, University of Michigan, "Anti-Competitive Effects of Common Ownership"
  • Craig Doidge and Alexander Dyck, University of Toronto; Hamed Mahmudi, University of Oklahoma; and Aazam Virani, University of Arizona, "Can Institutional Investors Improve Corporate Governance Through Collective Action?"


Political Economy

The NBER's Program on Political Economy met in Cambridge on April 10. Program Director Alberto Alesina of Harvard University organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Sergei Guriev, Sciences Po (Paris), and Daniel Treisman, University of California, Los Angeles, and NBER, "How Modern Dictators Survive: Co-optation, Censorship, Propaganda, and Repression" (NBER Working Paper No. 21136)
  • Andrea Prat, Columbia University, "Media Power"
  • Brian G. Knight, Brown University and NBER, "An Econometric Evaluation of Competing Explanations for the Midterm Gap" (NBER Working Paper No. 20311)
  • Thomas DohmenBenjamin Enke, and Armin Falk, University of Bonn; David Huffman, University of Oxford; and Uwe Sunde, University of Munich, "Patience and the Wealth of Nations"
  • Leonardo Bursztyn, University of California, Los Angeles, and NBER; Michael J. Callen, Harvard University; Bruno Ferman, Getúlio Vargas Foundation (Rio de Janeiro); Ali Hasanain, Lahore University of Management Sciences; and Noam Yuchtman, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER, "Identifying Ideology: Experimental Evidence on Anti-Americanism in Pakistan"
  • Daron Acemoglu, MIT and NBER; Georgy Egorov, Northwestern University and NBER; and Konstantin Sonin, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Moscow), "Social Mobility and Stability of Democracy: Re-Evaluating de Tocqueville"


Chinese Economy

The NBER's Working Group on the Chinese Economy met in Cambridge on April 10-11. Working Group Director Shang-Jin Wei of Columbia University and Research Associate Hanming Fang of the University of Pennsylvania organized the conference. These papers were discussed:

  • Xiaoxue Zhao, Duke University, "To Reallocate or Not? Optimal Land Institutions under Communal Tenure: Evidence from China"
  • Teng LiHaoming Liu, and Alberto Salvo, National University of Singapore, "Severe Air Pollution and Labor Productivity"
  • Nancy Qian, Yale University and NBER, and Jaya Wen, Yale University, "The Impact of Xi Jinping’s Anti-Corruption Campaign on Luxury Imports in China"
  • Brent Ambrose, Pennsylvania State University; Yongheng Deng, National University of Singapore; and Jing Wu, Tsinghua University, "Understanding the Risk of China’s Local Government Debts and Its Linkage with Property Markets"
  • Carlos Garriga, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; Yang Tang, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); and Ping Wang, Washington University in St. Louis and NBER, "Rural-Urban Migration, Structural Transformation, and Housing Markets in China"
  • Nathaniel Baum-Snow, Brown University and NBER; Loren Brandt, University of Toronto; J. Vernon Henderson, London School of Economics; Matthew Turner, Brown University; and Qinghua Zhang, Peking University, "Transport Infrastructure, Urban Growth, and Market Access in China"
  • Donghua Chen, Nanjing University; Dequan Jiang, Wuhan University; Alexander Ljungqvist, New York University and NBER; Haitian Lu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University; and Mingming Zhou, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, "State Capitalism vs. Private Enterprise" (NBER Working Paper No. 20930)
  • Ke Tang, Tsinghua University, and Haoxiang Zhu, MIT and NBER, "Commodities as Collateral"
  • Hanwei Huang, London School of Economics; Jiandong Ju, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics; and Vivian Z. Yue, Emory University, "A Unified Model of Structural Adjustments and International Trade: Theory and Evidence from China"
  • Ying Bai, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and Ruixue Jia, University of California, San Diego, "Elite Recruitment and Political Stability: The Impact of the Abolition of China's Civil Service Exam"


Asset Pricing

The NBER's Program on Asset Pricing met at the University of Chicago on April 10. Research Associates Nikolai Roussanov and Jules H. van Binsbergen of the University of Pennsylvania organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • William Fuchs and Brett Green, University of California, Berkeley, and Dimitris Papanikolaou, Northwestern University and NBER, "Adverse Selection, Slow Moving Capital, and Misallocation"
  • Nicolae B. Gârleanu, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER; Stavros Panageas, University of Chicago and NBER; and Jianfeng Yu, University of Minnesota, "Impediments to Financial Trade: Theory and Measurement"
  • Andrea Buffa, Boston University; Dimitri Vayanos, London School of Economics and NBER; and Paul Woolley, London School of Economics, "Asset Management Contracts and Equilibrium Prices" (NBER Working Paper No. 20480)
  • Martin Lettau, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER; Sydney C. Ludvigson, New York University and NBER; and Sai Ma, New York University, "Capital Share Risk and Shareholder Heterogeneity in U.S. Stock Pricing" (NBER Working Paper No. 20744)
  • Peter Feldhütter and Stephen Schaefer, London Business School, "The Credit Spread Puzzle in the Merton Model–Myth or Reality?"
  • Anna Cieslak, Northwestern University, and Adair Morse and Annette Vissing-Jorgensen, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER, "Stock Returns over the FOMC Cycle"


Behavioral Finance

The Behavioral Economics Working Group held a meeting on Behavioral Finance at the University of Chicago on April 11. Research Associate James J. Choi of Yale University and Faculty Research Fellow Kelly Shue of the University of Chicago organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Cary Frydman, University of Southern California, "What Drives Peer Effects in Financial Decision-Making? Neural and Behavioral Evidence"
  • Hong Ru, MIT, and Antoinette Schoar, MIT and NBER, "Do Credit Card Companies Screen for Behavioral Biases?"
  • Joshua Madsen, University of Minnesota, and Marina Niessner, Yale University, "Is Investor Attention for Sale? The Role of Advertising in Financial Markets"
  • Erik Eyster, London School of Economics; Matthew Rabin, University of California, Berkeley; and Dimitri Vayanos, London School of Economics and NBER, "Financial Markets where Traders Neglect the Informational Content of Prices" (NBER Working Paper No. 21224)
  • Dong Lou and Christopher Polk, London School of Economics, and Spyros Skouras, Athens University of Economics and Business, "A Tug of War: Overnight Versus Intraday Expected Returns"
  • Olivier Dessaint, University of Toronto, and Adrien Matray, HEC Paris, "Do Managers Overreact to Salient Risks? Evidence from Hurricane Strikes"


Health Economics

The NBER's Program on Health Economics met in Cambridge on April 17. Program Director Michael Grossman of the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and Research Associate Theodore Joyce of Baruch College organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Philip DeCicca, McMaster University and NBER, and Harry Krashinsky, University of Toronto, "Does Education Reduce Teen Fertility? Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws"
  • Thomas Goldring, Carnegie Mellon University; Fabian Lange, McGill University; and Seth Richards-Shubik, Carnegie Mellon University and NBER, "Testing for Changes in the SES-Mortality Gradient when the Distribution of Education Changes Too" (NBER Working Paper No. 20993)
  • Elaine M. Liu, University of Houston and NBER; Jin-Tan Liu, National Taiwan University and NBER; and Hazel Tseng, University of Houston, "The Impact of a Natural Disaster on the Incidence of Fetal Losses and Pregnancy Outcomes"
  • Mark L. Egan, University of Chicago, and Tomas Philipson, University of Chicago and NBER, "Non-Adherence and Personalized Medicine: A Positive and Normative Analysis"
  • D. Mark Anderson, Montana State University; Benjamin Crost, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; and Daniel I. Rees, University of Colorado Denver, "Wet Laws, Drinking Establishments, and Crime"
  • Chad D. Cotti, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh; Erik Nesson, Ball State University; and Nathan Tefft, Bates College, "The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Tobacco Products, Tar, and Nicotine Consumption: Evidence from Household Panel Data"


Cohort Studies

The NBER's Working Group on Cohort Studies met in Cambridge on April 17–18. Working Group Director Dora Costa of the University of California, Los Angeles, and Research Associate Robert Pollak of Washington University in St. Louis organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Alissa GoodmanHeather JoshiBilal Nasim, and Claire Tyler, University College London, "Social and Emotional Skills in Childhood and Their Long-Term Effects on Adult Life"
  • Gabriella Conti, University College London, "Explaining the Relationship between Early Life Factors and Later Outcomes: Behavioral and Biological Pathways"
  • Eric Schneider, University of Sussex, "Fetal Health Stagnation: Have Health Conditions in Utero Improved in the U.S. and Western and Northern Europe over the Past 150 Years?"
  • Aryeh Stein, Emory University, "Child Growth and Human Capital: Data from COHORTS"
  • Daniel W. BelskyAvshalom CaspiRenate HoutsHarvey J. Cohen, David CorcoranHonaLee HarringtonJon SchaeferKaren SugdenBenjamin WilliamsAnatoli I. Yashin, and Terrie Moffitt, Duke University; Andrea Danese, King's College London; Salomon Israel, Hebrew University of Jerusalem; M. E. Levine, University of California, Los Angeles; and Richie Poulton, University of Otago, "Quantification of Biological Aging in Young Adults"
  • Dave Donaldson, Stanford University and NBER, and Daniel Keniston, Yale University and NBER, "How Positive Was the Positive Check? Investment and Fertility in the Aftermath of the 1918 Influenza in India"
  • Chulhee Lee and Esther Lee, Seoul National University, "Son Preference, Sex-Selective Abortion, and Parental Investment in Girls in Korea: Evidence from the Year of the White Horse"
  • Joanna Lahey, Texas A&M University and NBER, and Douglas Oxley, University of Wyoming, "Discrimination at the Intersection of Age, Race, and Gender: Evidence from a Lab-in-the-Field Experiment"
  • Avron Spiro, Boston University, "Long-Term Psychological Outcomes of Military Experience"
  • Hans Henrik Sievertsen and Miriam Wüst, Danish National Centre for Social Research, "Discharge on the Day of Birth, Parental Response, and Health and Schooling Outcomes"
  • Adam Isen, Department of the Treasury; Maya Rossin-Slater, University of California, Santa Barbara; and Reed Walker, University of California, Berkeley, and NBER, "Heat and Long-Run Human Capital Formation"
  • Achyuta Adhvaryu, University of Michigan; Steven A. Bednar, Elon University; Teresa Molina and Anant Nyshadham, University of Southern California; and Quynh T. Nguyen, The World Bank, "Salt Iodization and the Enfranchisement of the American Worker"
  • Govert Bijwaard, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, and L.H. Lumey, Columbia University, "Effects of Prenatal Famine on Conscript Heights at Age 18"
  • Jesse Anttila-Hughes, University of San Francisco, and Thomas Dreesen, Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, "Heterogeneous Long-Term Human Capital Impacts of Climate Variability in Rural and Urban Bangladesh"
  • Sarah Miller, University of Michigan, and Laura R. Wherry, University of California, Los Angeles, "The Long-Term Health Effects of Early Life Medicaid Coverage"
  • Amanda E. Kowalski, Yale University and NBER, "What Do Longitudinal Data on Millions of Hospital Visits Tell us about the Value of Public Health Insurance as a Safety Net for the Young and Privately Insured?" (NBER Working Paper No. 20887)


Organizational Economics

The NBER's Working Group on Organizational Economics met in Cambridge on April 24–25. Working Group Director Robert Gibbons of MIT organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • David C. Chan, Jr., Stanford University and NBER, "Tacit Learning and Influence behind Practice Variation: Evidence from Physicians in Training"
  • Maija Halonen–Akatwijuka, University of Bristol, and Oliver D. Hart, Harvard University and NBER, "Short-Term, Long-Term, and Continuing Contracts" (NBER Working Paper No. 21005)
  • Casey Ichniowski, Columbia University (deceased), Anne Preston, Haverford College, "Do Star Performers Produce More Stars? Peer Effects and Learning in Elite Teams" (NBER Working Paper No. 20478)
  • Robert Akerlof, University of Warwick, and Richard Holden, University of New South Wales, "Movers and Shakers"
  • Rebecca Henderson, Harvard University and NBER, and Hazhir Rahmandad and Nelson P. Repenning, MIT, "Making the Numbers? 'Short Termism' & the Puzzle of Only Occasional Disaster" (NBER Working Paper No. 16367)
  • Alexander Peysakhovich, Harvard University, and David Rand, Yale University, "Habits of Virtue: Creating Norms of Cooperation and Defection in the Laboratory"
  • Steven Grenadier, Stanford University; Andrey Malenko, MIT; and Nadya Malenko, Boston College, "Timing Decisions in Organizations: Communication and Authority in a Dynamic Environment"
  • Birger Wernerfelt, MIT, "The Size of Markets and the Scope of Firms"
  • Mitchell Hoffman, University of Toronto; Lisa Kahn, Yale University and NBER; and Danielle Li, Harvard University, "Discretion in Hiring"
  • Luis Garicano, London School of Economics, and Luis Rayo, University of Utah, "Why Organizations Fail: Models and Cases"


Education Program

The NBER's Program on Education met in Cambridge on April 30. Program Director Caroline M. Hoxby of Stanford University organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Judith Scott-Clayton, Columbia University and NBER, and Lauren Schudde, Columbia University, "Performance Standards in Need-Based Student Aid"
  • Sarah R. Cohodes, Harvard University, "The Long-Run Impacts of Tracking High-Achieving Students: Evidence from Boston’s Advanced Work Class"
  • Hugh Macartney, Duke University and NBER; Robert McMillan, University of Toronto and NBER; and Uros Petronijevic, University of Toronto, "Incentive Design in Education: An Empirical Analysis"
  • Nicola Bianchi, Stanford University, "The General Equilibrium Effects of Educational Expansion"
  • Cassandra HartElizabeth Friedmann, and Michael Hill, University of California, Davis, "Online Course-Taking and Student Outcomes in California Community Colleges"
  • Markus Nagler, University of Munich; Marc Piopiunik, Ifo Institute for Economic Research (Munich); and Martin R. West, Harvard University and NBER, "Weak Markets, Strong Teachers: Recession at Career Start and Teacher Effectiveness"



The NBER's Program on Children met in Cambridge on May 1. Program Director Janet Currie of Princeton University organized the meeting. These papers were discussed:

  • Raj ChettyNathaniel Hendren, and Lawrence Katz, Harvard University and NBER, "The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment" (NBER Working Paper No. 21156)
  • Seema Jayachandran, Northwestern University and NBER, and Rohini Pande, Harvard University and NBER, "Why Are Indian Children So Short?" (NBER Working Paper No. 21036)
  • Randall Akee, University of California, Los Angeles, and Emilia Simeonova, Johns Hopkins University and NBER, "How Does Household Income Affect Child Personality Traits and Behaviors?"
  • Krzysztof Karbownik and Anthony Wray, Northwestern University, "Childhood Health and Long-Run Economic Opportunity in Victorian England"
  • Tom Vogl, Princeton University and NBER, "Intergenerational Dynamics and the Fertility Transition"
  • Kasey Buckles and Daniel M. Hungerman, University of Notre Dame and NBER, "The Incidental Fertility Effects of School Condom Distribution Programs"