Changing Economic Geography and Vertical Linkages in Japan
In Japan, the manufacturing has become geographically dispersed in the 1990s, when the import share has risen after the historic exchange rate appreciation. As is consistent with the interpretation that import penetration undermines regional input-output linkages, our regressions detect the significant decline of industrial concentrations previously established near output absorbers, especially in industries with high import share growths. This paper also finds that local knowledge spillovers and immobile specialized labor affect regional growth. Thus, while regional demand of tradable outputs matters less, regional supply of inputs, especially non-tradable inputs, remains critical for manufacturing locations.
Tomiura, Eiichi. "Changing Economic Geography And Vertical Linkages In Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 2003, v17(4,Dec), 561-581. citation courtesy of