New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data

Kimberly Bayard, Judith Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth Troske

NBER Working Paper No. 7003
Issued in March 1999
NBER Program(s):Labor Studies

We assemble a new matched employer-employee data set covering essentially all industries and occupations across all regions of the U.S. We use this data set to re-examine the question of the relative contributions to the overall sex gap in wages of sex segregation vs. wage differences by sex within occupation, industry, establishment, and occupation-establishment cells. This new data set is especially useful because earlier research on this topic relied on data sets that covered only a narrow range of industries, occupations, or regions. Our results indicate that a sizable fraction of the sex gap in wages is accounted for by the segregation of women into lower-paying occupations, industries, establishments, and occupations within establishments. Nonetheless, a substantial part of the sex gap in wages remains attributable to the individual's sex. This latter finding contrasts sharply with the conclusions of previous research (especially Groshen, 1991), which indicated that sex segregation accounted for essentially all of the sex wage gap. Further research into the sources of within-establishment within-occupation sex wage differences is therefore much more important than previously thought.

download in pdf format
   (501 K)

email paper

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w7003

Published: Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October. citation courtesy of

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded* these:
Blau, Simpson, and Anderson w6716 Continuing Progress? Trends in Occupational Segregation in the United States Over the 1970s and 1980s
Hellerstein, Neumark, and Troske w6321 Market Forces and Sex Discrimination
Blau and Kahn w7732 Gender Differences in Pay
Blau and Kahn w8200 Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap
Keller and Yeaple w9504 Multinational Enterprises, International Trade, and Productivity Growth: Firm-Level Evidence from the United States
NBER Videos

National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email:

Contact Us