Corporate-Finance Benefits from Universal Banking: Germany and the United States, 1870-1914
NBER Working Paper No. 4408
Limitations on bank consolidation and branching in the United States at an early date effectively limited the scope of commercial banks and their involvement in financing large-scale industry, and increased information and transaction costs of issuing securities. In contrast, German industry was financed by large-scale universal banks who maintained long-term relationships with firms, involving ongoing monitoring and disciplining of management, and underwriting. Low costs of German industrial finance are reflected in lower investment banking spreads on securities issues and a higher propensity to issue equity relative to the United States.
Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w4408
Published: Charles W. Calomiris, 1993. "Corporate-finance benefits from universal banking: Germany and the United States, 1870-1917," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 450-464.
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