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Global Wealth Inequality

Gabriel Zucman

NBER Working Paper No. 25462
Issued in January 2019
NBER Program(s):Development Economics, Economic Fluctuations and Growth, Public Economics

This article reviews the recent literature on the dynamics of global wealth inequality. I first reconcile available estimates of wealth inequality in the United States. Both surveys and tax data show that wealth inequality has increased dramatically since the 1980s, with a top 1% wealth share around 40% in 2016 vs. 25–30% in the 1980s. Second, I discuss the fast growing literature on wealth inequality across the world. Evidence points towards a rise in global wealth concentration: for China, Europe, and the United States combined, the top 1% wealth share has increased from 28% in 1980 to 33% today, while the bottom 75% share hovered around 10%. Recent studies, however, may under-estimate the level and rise of inequality, as financial globalization makes it increasingly hard to measure wealth at the top. I discuss how new data sources (leaks from financial institutions, tax amnesties, and macroeconomic statistics of tax havens) can be leveraged to better capture the wealth of the rich.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w25462

Published: Gabriel Zucman, 2019. "Global Wealth Inequality," Annual Review of Economics, vol 11(1).

 
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