The Effects of School Reform Under NCLB Waivers: Evidence from Focus Schools in Kentucky
Under waivers to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the federal government required states to identify schools where targeted subgroups of students have the lowest achievement and to implement reforms in these “Focus Schools.” In this study, we examine the Focus School reforms in the state of Kentucky. The reforms in this state are uniquely interesting for several reasons. One is that the state developed unusually explicit guidance for Focus Schools centered on a comprehensive school-planning process. Second, the state identified Focus Schools using a “super subgroup” measure that combined traditionally low-performing subgroups into an umbrella group. This design feature may have catalyzed broader whole-school reforms and attenuated the incentives to target reform efforts narrowly. Using regression discontinuity designs, we find that these reforms led to substantial improvements in school performance, raising math achievement by 17 percent and reading achievement by 9 percent.
We would like to acknowledge financial support from the Spencer, Walton, and WT Grant Foundations. We also express appreciation for comments provided by seminar participants at Stanford University and by participants at the AEFP and APPAM research conferences. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Sade Bonilla & Thomas S. Dee, 2020. "The Effects of School Reform under NCLB Waivers: Evidence from Focus Schools in Kentucky," Education Finance and Policy, vol 15(1), pages 75-103. citation courtesy of