Discrimination as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Evidence from French Grocery Stores
Examining the performance of cashiers in a French grocery store chain, we find that manager bias negatively affects minority job performance. In the stores studied, cashiers work with different managers on different days and their schedules are determined quasi-randomly. When minority cashiers, but not majority cashiers, are scheduled to work with managers who are biased (as determined by an Implicit Association Test), they are absent more often, spend less time at work, scan items more slowly, and take more time between customers. Manager bias has consequences for the average performance of minority workers: while on average minority and majority workers perform equivalently, on days where managers are unbiased, minorities perform significantly better than do majority workers. This appears to be because biased managers interact less with minorities, leading minorities to exert less effort.
We would like to thank Yann Algan, David Autor, Thomas Le Barbanchon, Eric Cediey, Raj Chetty, Bruno Crépon, Muriel Dejemeppe, Eleanor Dillon, Esther Duflo, Erin Fletcher, Roland Fryer, Ed Glaeser, Lisa Kahn, Lawrence Katz, Danielle Li, Florian Mayneris, four anonymous referees, and seminar participants at Berkeley Haas, London School of Economics, Nova Business School of Economics, Paris School of Economics, Sciences Po, University of California Santa Barbara, University of Illinios at Urbana-Champaign, University of Namur, and UC Louvain for their helpful comments. We would also like to thank Lisa Abraham, Jenna Anders, Frédéric Cochinard, Elizabeth Mishkin, and Adrien Pawlik for superb research assistance. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Fonds d’Expérimentation pour la Jeunesse (France). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
- Minority cashiers at a French grocery chain scanned articles slower when working shifts for managers who appear to be biased....
Dylan Glover & Amanda Pallais & William Pariente, 2017. "Discrimination as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Evidence from French Grocery Stores*," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol 132(3), pages 1219-1260. citation courtesy of