The Political Economy of Public Sector Absence: Experimental Evidence from Pakistan
NBER Working Paper No. 22340
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A previous version of this paper was circulated under the title “The Political Economy of Public Sector Absence: Experimental Evidence from Pakistan.” We thank Farasat Iqbal for championing and implementing the project and Asim Fayaz and Zubair Bhatti for designing the smartphone monitoring program. Support is generously provided by the International Growth Centre (IGC) political economy program, the IGC Pakistan Country Office, and the University of California Office of the President Lab Fees Research Program Grant #235855. Callen was supported by grant #FA9550- 09-1-0314 from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. We thank Erlend Berg, Eli Berman, Leonardo Bursztyn, Ali Cheema, Melissa Dell, Ruben Enikolopov, Barbara Geddes, Naved Hamid, Gordon Hanson, Michael Kremer, Asim Ijaz Khwaja, Craig McIntosh, Ijaz Nabi, Aprajit Mahajan, Monica Martinez-Bravo, Benjamin A. Olken, Gerard Padro -i-Miquel, Karthik Muralidharan, Rohini Pande, Daniel N. Posner, Ronald Rogowski, Jacob N. Shapiro, Christopher Woodruff, Oliver Vanden Eynde, David Yanagizawa-Drott, Ekaterina Zhuravskaya and various seminar participants for insightful comments. Excellent research assistance was provided by Muhammad Zia Mehmood and Haseeb Ali. We thank Ali Cheema and Farooq Naseer for kindly sharing their data on election outcomes. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.