An Economic Rationale for the African Scramble: The Commercial Transition and the Commodity Price Boom of 1845-1885
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We are grateful to Gareth Austin, Luis Bértola, James Femske, Leigh Gardner, Jens Andersson and the participants of the African Economic History Workshop 2014 (London School of Economics), the RIDGE Workshop on Comparative studies of the Southern Hemisphere in global economic history and development (Montevideo), the Workshop on Colonialism, Growth and Development in the Southern Hemisphere, 1800-2000 (Lund University) and seminar participants at Oxford University, Warwick University and Wageningen University for their comments on earlier drafts. We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (ERC Grant Agreement no. 313114) as part of the project ‘Is Poverty Destiny? A New Empirical Foundation for Long-Term African Welfare Analysis’ (Frankema and Woltjer) and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research for the project ‘Is Poverty Destiny? Exploring Long Term Changes in African Living Standards in Global Perspective’ (NWO VIDI Grant no. 016.124.307) (Frankema). We thank Loes Oudenhuijzen, Jasmijn Appels, Rolinde de Haan and Rens van Baren for excellent research assistance. The usual disclaimer applies. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.