Who Suffers During Recessions?
In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present raw tabulations and estimate a state panel data model that leverages variation across US states in the timing and severity of business cycles. We find that the impacts of the Great Recession are not uniform across demographic groups and have been felt most strongly for men, black and Hispanic workers, youth, and low education workers. These dramatic differences in the cyclicality across demographic groups are remarkably stable across three decades of time and throughout recessionary periods and expansionary periods. For the 2007 recession, these differences are largely explained by differences in exposure to cycles across industry-occupation employment.
We thank David Autor and Timothy Taylor for helpful editorial guidance. We also received valuable input from Marianne Bitler, Mary Daly, Nicole Fortin and Jean Roth. Doug Miller thanks the Center for Health and Wellbeing at Princeton University for support. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
- [The] groups [that] experienced the greatest employment losses in the Great Recession [were] ... the same groups who lost in the...
Hilary Hoynes & Douglas L. Miller & Jessamyn Schaller, 2012. "Who Suffers during Recessions?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 27-48, Summer. citation courtesy of