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National Bureau of Economic Research

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Reducing Inmate Misconduct and Recidivism

Reducing Inmate Misconduct and Recidivism

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Within-jail misconduct and recidivism rates upon release were significantly reduced when jailed individuals had access to a free education and training program, Marcella Alsan, Arkey M. Barnett, Peter Hull, and Crystal Yang find in “Something Works” in US Jails: Misconduct and Recidivism Effects of the IGNITE Program (NBER Working Paper 32282).

The researchers study the Inmate Growth Naturally and Intentionally Through Education (IGNITE) program in Flint,…

From the NBER Bulletin on Health

Early-Life Lead Exposure and Old-Age Longevity Figure

Early-Life Lead Exposure and Old-Age Longevity

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In the early decades of the twentieth century, many American cities installed municipal water systems. A wide range of materials were used for pipes, but lead was a common choice due to its durability, ease of installation, and relatively low incidence of leaks. In Toxified to the Bone: Early-Life and Childhood Exposure to Lead and Men’s Old-Age Mortality (NBER Working Paper 31957), Jason Fletcher and Hamid Noghanibehambari show that the use of lead pipes in these systems had detrimental effects on long-term health among residents of affected cities. 

The study examines the impact of early-life exposure to these lead pipes on longevity at older ages…

From the NBER Reporter: Research, program, and conference summaries

Unemployment in Informal Labor Markets in Developing Countries Figure

Unemployment in Informal Labor Markets in Developing Countries

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Developing countries typically exhibit low rates of rural wage employment. For example, in India, male workers whose primary source of earnings is wage labor report working on only 46 percent of days per year. Bangladesh has a similarly low 55 percent rate of employment among landless males, and the rates are even lower in sub-Saharan Africa.

What do these low employment rates mean? One possibility is that they reflect extremely high involuntary unemployment. Alternatively, the rates could be an outcome of reasonably well functioning labor markets in which workers are simply choosing self-employment, which tends to be high in poor countries. These two possibilities have drastically different implications for understanding how well labor markets work and what role, if…

From the NBER Bulletin on Entrepreneurship

 Immigration Policy and Entrepreneurs’ Choice of Startup Location figure

Immigration Policy and Entrepreneurs’ Choice of Startup Location

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Immigrants play a significant role in the entrepreneurial landscape. In the United States, immigrants are 80 percent more likely to start businesses than native-born Americans. More than half of America's billion-dollar startup companies trace their roots to immigrant founders. There is limited research, however, on the factors that influence immigrants' decisions about where to locate their startup businesses. 

In The Effect of Immigration Policy on Founding Location Choice: Evidence from Canada's Start-up Visa Program (NBER Working Paper 31634), Saerom Lee and Britta Glennon investigate the impact of Canada's Start-up Visa Program on US-based…

From the NBER Bulletin on Retirement and Disability

Social Security and Retirement around the World

Social Security and Retirement around the World

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Over the past 25 years, labor force participation at older ages has increased dramatically. In the 12 countries that are part of the NBER’s International Social Security (ISS) project, participation among those aged 60 to 64 has risen by an average of over 20 percentage points for men and over 25 percentage points for women.

In The Effects of Reforms on Retirement Behavior: Introduction and Summary (NBER Working Paper 31979), authors Axel Börsch-Supan and Courtney Coile report on the most recent work of the ISS project. The current analysis builds on previous project phases which showed that changes in health and education could…

Featured Working Papers

In business environments dominated by information flows and autonomous tasks, the productivity gains from high levels of trust among employees are stronger than elsewhere, while strict hiring and firing regulations are more damaging, according to research by Gilbert CetteJimmy LopezJacques Mairesse, and Giuseppe Nicoletti.

A randomized controlled trial of different approaches to teaching math, involving about 4,000 students in two large school districts, shows that strategic use of technology can increase the scalability of high dosage tutoring,  Monica P. BhattJonathan GuryanSalman A. KhanMichael LaForest-Tucker, and Bhavya Mishra find.

Using nearly 75 years of data on survey forecasts of real GDP growth expectations, William N. GoetzmannAkiko Watanabe, and Masahiro Watanabe find that procyclical stocks, whose returns comove with business cycles, earn higher average returns than their countercyclical peers.  

After the 2002 Argentinean devaluation, Andrés BlancoAndrés Drenik, and Emilio Zaratiegui find that households at the bottom of the income distribution recovered faster than those at the top, in part because of low mobility and lack of union coverage among higher-income workers.

Daron Acemoglu estimates that that the roll-out of AI-enabled tools will generate no more than a 0.66 percent increase in total factor productivity over the next decade, with little decline in labor income inequality. 

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Research Spotlights

NBER researchers discuss their work on subjects of wide interest to economists, policymakers, and the general public. Recordings of more-detailed presentations, keynote addresses, and panel discussions at NBER conferences are available on the Lectures page.

Research Spotlight
An investigation of the role of anonymity in online communication and social media posting.    ...
Research Spotlight
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Conrad Miller of the University of California, Berkeley,...
Research Spotlight
In recognition of Black History Month, Research Associate Trevon Logan of The Ohio State University, who directs the...
Research Spotlight
A growing fraction of US medical care is delivered through integrated healthcare systems that include many medical...
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