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About the Author(s)

Daniel P. Gross Profile

Daniel P. Gross is an assistant professor of business administration at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business and a faculty research fellow at the NBER affiliated with the Program on the Development of the American Economy. He researches the causes and consequences of technological change.

Recurring themes in Gross’ work include crisis innovation and its impacts on the innovation system; automation and its effects on firms, workers, and labor markets; and incentives and other tools for managing creative workers within organizations. His work frequently uses historical examples of industries undergoing significant technological change as contexts to investigate recurrent or modern economic questions.

Gross received his BA in mathematics and economics from Tufts University and his PhD in economics from the University of California, Berkeley in 2015. His research with Bhaven Sampat has been funded by the National Science Foundation.

Bhaven N. Sampat

Bhaven N. Sampat is a professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University and a research associate affiliated with the NBER’s Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Program. His research focuses on the economics and political economy of science and technology, primarily in the life sciences.

In addition to his work on World War II and crisis innovation, his current research studies pharmaceutical patent policy, innovation, and access to medicines in the United States and globally; the roles of the government in pharmaceutical innovation; and the history and political economy of the National Institutes of Health.


1. Memorandum to the Coronavirus Task Force,” Navarro P. 2020; “Beat COVID-19 through Innovation,” Azoulay P, Jones B. Science 368(6491), May 2020, p. 553.   Go to ⤴︎
2. Moonshot: Public R&D and Growth,” Kantor S, Whalley A. April 2022. Working Paper.   Go to ⤴︎
4. The World War II Crisis Innovation Model: What Was It, and Where Does It Apply?” Gross D, Sampat B. NBER Working Paper 27909, revised June 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
5. The Mobilization of Science for the War Effort,” Conant J. American Scientist 35(2), April 1947, pp. 194–210.   Go to ⤴︎
6. America, Jump-started: World War II R&D and the Takeoff of the U.S. Innovation System,” Gross D, Sampat B. NBER Working Paper 27375, June 2020, revised September 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
7. “The Long-Run Effects of the World War II Medical Research Effort on Science, Technology, and Practice,” Gross D, Sampat B. August 2022. Available from the authors on request.   Go to ⤴︎
8. “Coordinated R&D Programs and the Creation of New Industries,” Gross D, Roche M, Sampat B. August 2022. Available from the authors on request.   Go to ⤴︎
9. The Hidden Costs of Securing Innovation: The Manifold Impacts of Compulsory Invention Secrecy,” Gross D. NBER Working Paper 25545, revised April 2022. Forthcoming in Management Science.   Go to ⤴︎
10. The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research,” Nelson R. Journal of Political Economy 67(3), June 1959, pp. 297–306; “Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention,” Arrow K. In The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pp. 609–626. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.   Go to ⤴︎
11. The Economics of Crisis Innovation Policy: A Historical Perspective,” Gross D, Sampat B. NBER Working Paper 28335, January 2021, and AEA Papers & Proceedings 111, May 2021, pp. 346–350.   Go to ⤴︎
13. Technology Policy and Global Warming: Why New Policy Models Are Needed (Or Why Putting New Wine in Old Bottles Won’t Work),” Mowery D, Nelson R, Martin B. Research Policy 39(8), October 2010, pp. 1011–1023.   Go to ⤴︎
14. Crisis Innovation Policy from World War II to COVID-19,” Gross D, Sampat B. NBER Working Paper 28915, June 2021, and in Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy and the Economy 1 2022, pp. 135–181.   Go to ⤴︎
16. Whose Drugs Are These?” Sampat B. Issues in Science and Technology 36(4), Summer 2020, pp. 42–48.   Go to ⤴︎

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