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About the Author(s)

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D. Mark Anderson is an associate professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics at Montana State University. He is a coeditor at Economic Inquiry and an NBER research associate affiliated with the Heath Economics Program. An applied microeconomist with research interests in health, crime, and economic history, he is also studying the relationship between child access gun laws and juvenile firearm-related homicides in the United States.

Anderson received his BS from Montana State University and his MA and PhD from the University of Washington. He currently lives in Livingston, Montana with his wife and daughter.

Kerwin Kofi Charles is the Indra K. Nooyi Dean and Frederic D. Wolfe Professor of Economics, Policy, and Management at the Yale School of Management. He is vice president of the American Economic Association, vice chair of NORC at the University of Chicago, an NBER research associate affiliated with the Labor Studies Program, and an elected fellow of the Society of Labor Economists.  He is also a member of the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee and the editorial board of the Journal of Labor Economics.

Charles is interested in earnings and wealth inequality, racial earnings differences, labor market discrimination, the intergenerational transmission of economic status, the labor market consequences of housing bubbles and sectoral change, and leisure technology. He received his BA from Miami University and his MS and PhD from Cornell University.  He currently lives in New Haven, Connecticut with his wife and two sons.

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Daniel I. Rees, a professor of economics at the University of Colorado Denver and a research associate affiliated with the NBER’s Health Economics Program, is joining the economics faculty at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.  He is an associate editor of Economic Inquiry and the European Economic Review, and a coeditor of the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.  He has been a research fellow at the Institute of Labor Economics (IZA) since 2011.

Rees is interested in the determinants of risky behavior, the effects of prenatal stress on child health, and the long-term effects of smoking on health. Rees received his BA from Oberlin College, his MA from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and his PhD from Cornell University.  He currently lives in Madrid with his wife and two children. 

Endnotes

1. “Health and the Economy in the United States, from 1750 to the Present,” Costa D. NBER Working Paper 19685, June 2014, and Journal of Economic Literature 53(3), September 2015, pp. 503–570; The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100: Europe, America, and the Third World, Fogel R. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Go to ⤴︎
2. The Urban Mortality Transition in the United States, 1800–1940,” Haines M. NBER Historical Working Paper 134, July 2001, and Annales de Démographie Historique 101(1), 2001, pp. 33–64.   Go to ⤴︎
3. Reasons for the Decline of Mortality in England and Wales during the Nineteenth Century,” McKeown T, Record RG. Population Studies 16(2), November 2011, pp. 94–122; The Modern Rise of Population, McKeown T. New York, Academic Press, 1976; “New Findings on Secular Trends in Nutrition and Mortality: Some Implications for Population Theory,” Fogel R. Handbook of Population and Family Economics 1(A), 1997, pp. 433–481.   Go to ⤴︎
4. The Determinants of Mortality,” Cutler D, Deaton A, Lleras-Muney A. NBER Working Paper 11963, January 2006, and Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(3), Summer 2006, pp. 97–120; “Health and the Economy in the United States, from 1750 to the Present,” Costa D. NBER Working Paper 19685, June 2014, and Journal of Economic Literature 53(3), September 2015, pp. 503–570.   Go to ⤴︎
5. The Determinants of Mortality,” Cutler D, Deaton A, Lleras-Muney A. NBER Working Paper 11963, January 2006, and Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(3), Summer 2006, pp. 97–120; “Water and Chicago’s Mortality Transition, 1850–1925,” Ferrie J, Troesken W. Explorations in Economic History 45(1), 2008, pp. 1–16.   Go to ⤴︎
6. Public Health Efforts and the Decline in Urban Mortality,” Anderson D, Charles K, Rees D. NBER Working Paper 25027, December 2018, and forthcoming as “Re-examining the Contribution of Public Health Efforts to the Decline in Urban Mortality,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.   Go to ⤴︎
7. Water, Race, and Disease, Troesken W. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2004; “The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The Twentieth-Century United States,” Cutler D, Miller G. NBER Working Paper 10511, May 2004, and Demography 42(1), February 2005, pp. 1–22; “Typhoid Fever, Water Quality, and Human Capital Formation,” Beach B, Ferrie J, Saavedra M, Troesken W. Journal of Economic History 76(1), February 2016, pp. 41–75.   Go to ⤴︎
8. The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The Twentieth Century United States,” Cutler D, Miller G. NBER Working Paper 10511, May 2004, and Demography 42(1), February 2005, pp 1–22.   Go to ⤴︎
9.  Cutler and Miller analyzed data from 13 major American cities for the period 1900–1936. Using their data and specification, we found that their estimated effect of filtration on total mortality was halved if US Census Bureau population estimates were used to consistently calculate the total mortality rate for the full data sample and that correcting transcription errors reduced the estimated effect on infant mortality by two-thirds.   Go to ⤴︎
10. Water Purification Efforts and the Black-White Infant Mortality Gap, 1906–1938,” Anderson D, Charles K, Rees D, Wang T. NBER Working Paper 26489, November 2019, and Journal of Urban Economics 122, March 2021, 103329.   Go to ⤴︎
11. Water, Race, and Disease, Troesken W. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2004.   Go to ⤴︎
12. The Limits of Jim Crow: Race and the Provision of Water and Sewerage Services in American Cities, 1880–1925,” Troesken W. Journal of Economic History 62(3), October 2002, pp. 734–772.   Go to ⤴︎
13. Technological Progress and Health Convergence: The Case of Penicillin in Post-War Italy,” Alsan M, Atella V, Bhattacharya J, Conti V, Mejía-Guevara I, Miller G. NBER Working Paper 25541, February 2019.   Go to ⤴︎
14. Water, Race, and Disease, Troesken W. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2004.   Go to ⤴︎
15. Save the Babies: American Public Health Reform and the Prevention of Infant Mortality, 1850–1929, Meckel R. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990; “Information and the Impact of Climate and Weather on Mortality Rates during the Great Depression,” Fishback P, Troesken W, Kollmann T, Haines M, Rhode P, Thomasson M. In The Economics of Climate Change: Adaptations Past and Present, Libecap G, Steckel R, editors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.   Go to ⤴︎
16. The Phenomenon of Summer Diarrhea and Its Waning, 1910–1930,” Anderson D, Rees D, Wang T. NBER Working Paper 25689, October 2019, and Explorations in Economic History 78, October 2020, 101341.   Go to ⤴︎
17. The Burden of Disease and the Changing Task of Medicine,” Jones D, Podolsky S, Greene J. New England Journal of Medicine 366(25), June 2012, pp. 2333–2338.   Go to ⤴︎
18. Was the First Public Health Campaign Successful?” Anderson D, Charles K, Olivares C, Rees D. NBER Working Paper 23219, March 2017, and American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 11(2), April 2019, pp. 143–175.     Go to ⤴︎
19. Public Health Efforts and the Decline in Urban Mortality,” Anderson D, Charles K, Rees D. NBER Working Paper 25027, December 2018, and forthcoming as “Re-examining the Contribution of Public Health Efforts to the Decline in Urban Mortality,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.   Go to ⤴︎

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