Racial Bias and In-group Bias in Judicial Decisions: Evidence from Virtual Reality Courtrooms
NBER Working Paper No. 25355
---- Acknowledgments ----
We thank Christine Jolls, Ozkan Eren, Shawn Kantor, Carl Kitchens, Marc Isaac, Bulent Unel, Stefan Voigt, Barton Willage, Richard Boylan and participants of seminars at the University of Iowa, Florida State University, the European Law and Economics Association Meetings in Milan, Italy, and the Economic Consequences of Legal Development Workshop at UCLouvain for helpful comments. Funding from the Faculty of Business Economics of Hasselt University is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Johan Ackaert and Sofie Hennau for allowing us to engage their law students in the study, and to the Office of the District Attorney of Limburg, Belgium and in particular the District Attorney, Guido Vermeiren for sharing their expertise and for allowing us to use their main courtroom. We also thank prosecutors Bruno Coppin and Pieter Strauven, and attorneys Sophia Lycops, Tom Van Overbeke and Mieke Denissen for participating in the trials. We are grateful to Jeff Luyten and Michel Séquaris from Uncanny Virtual Experiences for making this project possible by providing technical support in creating the VR videos and to Sem Metten for creating the website that communicated with the VR videos and that enabled the participants to register their decisions. Bielen acknowledges financial support from Research Foundation Flanders, grant number 12S3117N. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.