The Evolution of Longevity: Evidence from Canada
We find a steep earnings-longevity gradient using fifty years of administrative data from Canada, with men in the top ventile of earnings living eight years (11 percent) longer than those in the bottom ventile. For women, the difference is 3.6 years. Unlike the United States, this longevity gradient in Canada has shifted uniformly through time, with approximately equal gains across the earnings distribution. We compare our results using cross-sectional and cohort-based methods, finding similar trends but a steeper gradient when using cohorts. For middle-aged men, we find a cessation of mortality improvements in recent years, comparable to changes observed in the United States. Changes in income do not explain cross-time or cross-country differences.
Funding provided by Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. We thank the staff at Employment and Social Development Canada for facilitating access to the data, and staff at the British Columbia Interuniversity Research Data Centre for providing secure access. We thank Ben Milner for excellent research assistance; Steffen Christensen, Josh Gottlieb, Pierre-Carl Michaud, Michael Stepner and seminar/conference participants at Canadian Economic Association, Dalhousie, National Taiwan University, NBER Aging Spring Meeting, Saskatchewan, UBC, Waterloo, and Wilfrid Laurier University for helpful comments. The research and analysis are based on data provided through Statistics Canada and the opinions expressed do not represent the views of Statistics Canada or the data providers. Remaining errors are our own. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
July 21, 2018
This document attempts to disclose completely my potential conflicts of interest, using the principles circulated by the American Economic Association on January 5, 2012.
Item (2): Sources of support:
“Each author of a submitted article should identify each interested party from whom he or she has received significant financial support, summing to at least $10,000 in the past three years, …”
The following corresponds to the calendar years 2015-2018. Below is a complete listing of sources of support that exceed $10,000. For several of these, a grant flowed through a research organization. I have tried to list both the research organization and ultimate source of the funds.
1. University of British Columbia: salary. (2015 2016 2017 2018)
2. National Institute on Aging / National Bureau of Economic Research: stipend for International Social Security project. (2015)
3. Sloan Foundation / National Bureau of Economic Research: stipend for Longer Working Lives project. (2015 2016 2017)
4. Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada: Standard Research Grant. (2015)
5. Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada: Insight Development Grant. (2015 2016 2017 2018)
6. C.D. Howe Institute, stipend for role as Scholar-in-Residence (2015 2016 2017 2018)
7. Department of Finance: personal services agreement for consulting (2016 2017)
8. Department of Finance: Interchange Agreement (ie ‘secondment’) for 80% of my time, September-December (2016).
Item (3): relevant paid or unpaid positions:
“Each author should disclose any paid or unpaid positions as officer, director, or board member of relevant non-profit advocacy organizations or profit-making entities.”
The following list covers activities in the years 2013-2016:
1. Editor, Canadian Tax Journal. (Paid) (2015 2016 2017 2018)
2. Associate Editor, Journal of Pension Economics and Finance. (Unpaid) (2015 2016 2017 2018)
3. Academic Director, British Columbia Interuniversity Research Data Centre (Unpaid; teaching release / research stipend). Funded by UBC/UVIC/SFU/UNBC/SSHRC/CIHR. (2015 2016 2017 2018)
4. President and sole shareholder of KAYEMM CONSULTANCY INCORPORATED, through which some of the above funds have been received. (2015 2016 2017 2018)
5. Board of Directors, Wesley Place Ltd., Vancouver BC. (Unpaid) (2015 2016 2017 2018)
6. Member of Economic Advisory Council for Liberal Party of Canada. (Unpaid) (2014 2015)
Item (4): disclosure for close relative or partner
I had no domestic partner in the years 2015-2018.
1. Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research. (Unpaid) 2015 2016 2017 2018)
2. Scholar-in-Residence, C.D. Howe Institute. (Stipend) (2015 2016 2017 2018)
3. Occasional contributor, Maclean’s Econowatch. (Paid) (2015 2016 2017)
I hold shares in companies through broadly-diversified mutual funds and investment vehicles. I do not directly hold shares of any individual corporation (except for KAYEMM CONSULTANCY as noted above).
I am not a member of any political party at the municipal, provincial, or federal levels. I have occasional policy conversations with policymakers from many parties, as well as government officials at the municipal, provincial, and federal levels.
Right to review:
None of these organizations had a right to review or edit my published work, except when they acted as the publisher.Tammy Schirle
This document attempts to disclose completely my potential conflicts of interest.
Sources of support exceeding $5,000 since 2011:
1. Wilfrid Laurier University (salary 2011-present)
2. Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada: Insight Development Grant (2015-2017)
3. Ontario Ministry of Labour, Pay Equity Commission, Gender Wage Gap Grant Program (three research grants 2014-15, 2015-16, and 2016-17)
4. Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (stipend for paper and directing research series, 2013)
5. MITACS, in partnership with Biz-Zone Internet Group Inc. Accelerate program (2015)
Relevant paid positions since 2011:
1. Associate Editor, Canadian Public Policy (paid, 2015-present)
2. Editor, B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (paid, 2016-present)
3. Occasional reviewer for Employment and Social Development Canada (paid)
Additional affiliations and positions since 2011:
1. Research Fellow, C.D. Howe Insitute (unpaid, 2016-present)
2. Chair, Waterloo Region Collaborative Economic Research Group (unpaid, 2014-2018)
3. Board Member, Canadian Labour Economics Forum (unpaid, 2015-present)
4. Director, Laurier Centre for Economic Research and Policy Analysis (unpaid, teaching release, 2014-present)
I hold shares in companies only through broadly diversified investment vehicles. I do not directly hold shares of any individual corporation.
I am not a member of any political party.
Kevin Milligan & Tammy Schirle, 2021. "The evolution of longevity: Evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 54(1), pages 164-192, February. citation courtesy of