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Measuring and Bounding Experimenter Demand

Jonathan de Quidt, Johannes Haushofer, Christopher Roth

NBER Working Paper No. 23470
Issued in June 2017
NBER Program(s):Development Economics, Labor Studies

We propose a technique for assessing robustness of behavioral measures and treatment effects to experimenter demand effects. The premise is that by deliberately inducing demand in a structured way we can measure its influence and construct plausible bounds on demand-free behavior. We provide formal restrictions on choice that validate our method, and a Bayesian model that microfounds them. Seven pre-registered experiments with eleven canonical laboratory games and around 19,000 participants demonstrate the technique. We also illustrate how demand sensitivity varies by task, participant pool, gender, real versus hypothetical incentives, and participant attentiveness, and provide both reduced-form and structural analyses of demand effects.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w23470

Published: Jonathan de Quidt & Johannes Haushofer & Christopher Roth, 2018. "Measuring and Bounding Experimenter Demand," American Economic Review, vol 108(11), pages 3266-3302. citation courtesy of

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