What Do Test Scores Miss? The Importance of Teacher Effects on Non-Test Score Outcomes
This paper extends the traditional test-score value-added model of teacher quality to allow for the possibility that teachers affect a variety of student outcomes through their effects on both students’ cognitive and noncognitive skill. Results show that teachers have effects on skills not measured by test-scores, but reflected in absences, suspensions, course grades, and on-time grade progression. Teacher effects on these non-test-score outcomes in 9th grade predict effects on high-school completion and predictors of college-going—above and beyond their effects on test scores. Relative to using only test-score measures of teacher quality, including both test-score and non-test-score measures more than doubles the predictable variability of teacher effects on these longer-run outcomes.
This paper represents a sizable revision and reworking of NBER Working Paper No. 18624 titled "Non-Cognitive Ability, Test Scores, and Teacher Quality: Evidence from 9th Grade Teachers in North Carolina" I thank David Figlio, Jon Guryan, Simone Ispa-Landa, Clement Jackson, Mike Lovenheim, James Pustejovsky, Jonah Rockoff, Alexey Makarin, and Dave Deming for insightful comments. I also thank Kara Bonneau from the NCERDC and Shayna Silverstein. This research was supported by funding from the Smith Richardson Foundation. The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
C. Kirabo Jackson, 2018. "What Do Test Scores Miss? The Importance of Teacher Effects on Non–Test Score Outcomes," Journal of Political Economy, vol 126(5), pages 2072-2107.