Estimating the Effects of Large Shareholders Using a Geographic Instrument
Large shareholders may play an important role for firm performance and policies, but identifying this empirically presents a challenge due to the endogeneity of ownership structures. We develop and test an empirical framework which allows us to separate selection from treatment effects of large shareholders. Individual blockholders tend to hold blocks in public firms located close to where they reside. Using this empirical observation, we develop an instrument - the density of wealthy individuals near a firm's headquarters - for the presence of a large, non-managerial individual shareholder in a firm. These shareholders have a large impact on firms, controlling for selection effects.
The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Fahlenbrach gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics and the Swiss Finance Institute.
Becker, Bo & Cronqvist, Henrik & Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger, 2011. "Estimating the Effects of Large Shareholders Using a Geographic Instrument," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(04), pages 907-942, September. citation courtesy of