The Evolution of Income Concentration in Japan, 1886-2002: Evidence from Income Tax Statistics
This paper studies the evolution of income concentration in Japan from 1886 to 2002 by constructing long-run series of top income shares and top wage income shares, using income tax statistics. We find that (1) income concentration was extremely high throughout the pre-WWII period during which the nation underwent rapid industrialization; (2) a drastic de-concentration of income at the top took place in 1938-1945; (3) income concentration has remained low throughout the post-WWII period despite the high economic growth; and (4) top income composition in Japan has shifted dramatically from capital income to employment income over the course of the 20th century. We attribute the precipitous fall in income concentration during WWII primarily to the collapse of capital income due to wartime regulations and inflation. We argue that the change in the institutional structure under the occupational reforms made the one-time income de-concentration difficult to reverse. In contrast to the sharp increase in wage income inequality observed in the United States since 1970, the top wage income shares in Japan have remained remarkably stable over the recent decades. We show that the change in technology or tax policies alone cannot account for the comparative experience of Japan and the United States. Instead we suggest that institutional factors such as corporate governance and union structure are important determinants of wage income inequality.
We thank seminar participants at the NBER Japan Meeting, Berkeley University, Columbia University, Harvard University US-Japan Relations Program, University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Keio University, and Osaka University for helpful discussions. In particular, we are grateful to Joseph Ferrie, Laura Hein, Charles Horioka, Yasushi Iwamoto, Ryo Kambayashi, Anil Kashyap, Lawrence Katz, Wojciech Kopczuk, Ryoshin Minami, Joel Mokyr, Fumio Ohtake, Tetsuji Okazaki, Makoto Saito, Osamu Saito, Toshiaki Tachibanaki, Gail Triner, David Weinstein, and Hiroshi Yoshikawa for their comments and suggestions. Financial support from NSF Grant SES-0134946, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Abe Fellowship Program is gratefully acknowledged. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Chiaki Moriguchi & Emmanuel Saez, 2008. "The Evolution of Income Concentration in Japan, 1886-2005: Evidence from Income Tax Statistics," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 713-734, 07.