The NBER Board of Directors promoted 40 faculty research fellows to research associates at its September 2021 meeting. Research associates must be tenured faculty members at North American colleges or universities; their appointments are recommended to the board by directors of the NBER’s 20 research programs, typically after consultation with a steering committee of leading scholars. The new research associates are affiliated with 34 different colleges and universities; they received graduate training at 21 different institutions. As of October 1, 2021, there were 1325 research associates and 306 faculty research fellows. The names and university affiliations of newly promoted research associates are listed below.