Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for Developing Countries
This paper draws together a variety of openness measures to test the association between openness and growth. Although the correlation across different types of openness is not always strong, there is generally a positive association between growth and different measures of openness. The strength of the association depends on whether the specification uses cross-section or panel data (which combines cross- section and time series). For industrializing countries, which have exhibited significant fluctuations in trade regimes over time, long run averages may not serve as very meaningful indicators of policy.
Harrison, Ann. "Openness And Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis For Developing Countries," Journal of Development Economics, 1996, v48(2,Mar), 419-447. citation courtesy of