Gender Gaps at the Academies
Historically, a large majority of the newly elected members of the National Academy of Science (NAS) and the American Academy of Arts and Science (AAAS) were men. Within the past two decades, however, that situation has changed, and in the last 3 years women made up about 40 percent of the new members in both academies. We build lists of active scholars from publications in the top journals in three fields – Psychology, Mathematics and Economics – and develop a series of models to compare changes in the probability of selection of women as members of the NAS and AAAS from the 1960s to today, controlling for publications and citations. In the early years of our sample, women were less likely to be selected as members than men with similar records. By the 1990s, the selection process at both academies was approximately gender-neutral, conditional on publications and citations. In the past 20 years, however, a positive preference for female members has emerged and strengthened in all three fields. Currently, women are 3-15 times more likely to be selected as members of the AAAS and NAS than men with similar publication and citation records.
We are grateful to Chris Lim, Junru Lyu, Sergio Nascimento, and a team of undergraduate research assistants for their extraordinary help. Nagore Iriberri acknowledges financial support from grants PID2019-106146GB-I00 MINECO/FEDER and IT367-19. Patricia Funk acknowledges financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 200929). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
David Card & Stefano DellaVigna & Patricia Funk & Nagore Iriberri, 2023. "Gender gaps at the academies," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol 120(4).