Leaving the Enclave: Historical Evidence on Immigrant Mobility from the Industrial Removal Office
The Industrial Removal Office funded 39,000 Jewish households to leave enclave neighborhoods in New York City from 1900 to 1922. Compared to neighbors with the same baseline occupation, program participants earned 4 percent more ten years after relocation. These gains persisted to the next generation. Benefits increased with more years spent outside of an enclave. Participants were more likely to speak English and married spouses with less Jewish names. More Jewishly-identified men (as measured by own name) were more likely to return to the city. We contextualize these results with new national evidence on Jewish economic and cultural assimilation.