Education, HIV, and Early Fertility: Experimental Evidence from Kenya
A seven-year randomized evaluation suggests education subsidies reduce adolescent girls' dropout, pregnancy, and marriage but not sexually transmitted infection (STI). The government's HIV curriculum, which stresses abstinence until marriage, does not reduce pregnancy or STI. Both programs combined reduce STI more, but cut dropout and pregnancy less, than education subsidies alone. These results are inconsistent with a model of schooling and sexual behavior in which both pregnancy and STI are determined by one factor (unprotected sex), but consistent with a two-factor model in which choices between committed and casual relationships also affect these outcomes.
We are extremely grateful to Abhijit Banerjee for his essential inputs on the model, and to Prof. Samuel Sinei and Dr. Vandana Sharma for their medical expertise and invaluable support. We thank the Kenya Ministry of Education, the Kenya Institute of Education, ICS Africa, and IPA Kenya for their collaboration, and Carolyne Nekesa, Grace Makana, and their field team for their dedication and scrupulous care collecting the data. We thank the editor, two anonymous referees, Frank Schilbach, Rachael Meager, and numerous seminar participants for helpful comments; and to Abdulla Al-Sabah, Jeff Guo, Rachael Meager, Santiago Saavedra and Zhaoning Wang for outstanding research assistance. We are also grateful to a long list of outstanding field research assistants. We list them in chronological order: Jessica Leino, Jessica Morgan, Owen Ozier, Ian Tomb, Paul Wang, Willa Friedman, Anuja Singh, Jinu Koola, Jessica Leight, Bastien Michel, Sara Hernandez, and Thomas Ginn. The funding for this study was provided by (in alphabetical order): the Hewlett Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the NIH, the Nike Foundation, the Partnership for Child Development, and the World Bank. We thank them, without implicating them, for making this study possible. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Esther Duflo & Pascaline Dupas & Michael Kremer, 2015. "Education, HIV, and Early Fertility: Experimental Evidence from Kenya," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(9), pages 2757-97, September. citation courtesy of