Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less Than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India
Medical research indicates that breastfeeding suppresses post-natal fertility. We model the implications for breastfeeding decisions and test the model's predictions using survey data from India. First, we find that breastfeeding increases with birth order, since mothers near or beyond their desired total fertility are more likely to make use of the contraceptive properties of nursing. Second, given a preference for having sons, mothers with no or few sons want to conceive again and thus limit their breastfeeding. We indeed find that daughters are weaned sooner than sons, and, moreover, for both sons and daughters, having few or no older brothers results in earlier weaning. Third, these gender effects peak as mothers approach their target family size, when their decision about future childbearing (and therefore breastfeeding) is highly marginal and most sensitive to considerations such as ideal sex composition.
Because breastfeeding protects against water- and food-borne disease, our model also makes predictions regarding health outcomes. We find that child-mortality patterns mirror those of breastfeeding with respect to gender and its interactions with birth order and ideal family size. Our results suggest that the gender gap in breastfeeding explains 14 percent of excess female child mortality in India, or about 22,000 "missing girls" each year.
We thank Kristin Plys and Luke Stein for excellent research assistance and Anne Case, Monica Das Gupta, Angus Deaton, Pascaline Dupas, Claudia Goldin, Jeffrey Hammer, Larry Katz, Alan Krueger, Adriana Lleras-Muney, Ben Olken, Emily Oster, Eliot Regett, Shanna Rose, Sam Schulhofer-Wohl, Chris Woodruff, and conference and seminar participants at Princeton, Stanford, the Pacific Conference for Development Economics, and the NBER Children's meeting for helpful comments. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
Seema Jayachandran & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2011. "Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(3), pages 1485-1538. citation courtesy of