Labor Relations, Wages and Nonwage Compensation in Municipal Employment

Jeffrey S. Zax

NBER Working Paper No. 1582
Issued in March 1985
NBER Program(s):Labor Studies

In the private sector, "unionization" typically refers to employees who are organized, recognized, and covered by contracts, according to the procedures established by the National Labor Relations Board. The municipal sector provides an instructive contrast. There, "unionization" encompasses five mutually exclusive combinations of organizational structure and labor relations practice. These "modes" form a hierarchy of employee power, from strongest to weakest: recognized bargaining units, unrecognized unions in cities which contain other recognized unions, unorganized employees in cities which contain recognized unions,unrecognized unions in cities which contain no recognized unions, and unorganized employees in cities which contain no recognized unions. Differences in the effects of each mode on compensation for municipal employees demonstrate differences in the intrinsic strength of different union institutions. Municipal compensation levels are dramatically higher for employees represented by more powerful modes of unionization, regardless of other conditions in factor and output markets. Union effects on total compensation, in comparison to its mean, range from 3.8% for unrecognized unions in cities which contain no recognized bargaining units, to 11.8% for recognized bargaining units, themselves. In addition, union effects on total compensation are reater than union effects an wages in all modes. Relative union effects on expenditures for paid time not worked and pension benefits are usually more than twice wage effects. Union effects on medical benefits are nearly twice wage effects.

download in pdf format
   (640 K)

download in djvu format
   (299 K)

email paper

Machine-readable bibliographic record - MARC, RIS, BibTeX

Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w1582

Published: "Wages, Non Wage Compensation and Municipal Unions", Industrial Relations,vol.27, no.3, pp 301-317, Fall 1988.

Users who downloaded this paper also downloaded* these:
Zax and Ichniowski The Effects of Public Sector Unionism on Pay, Employment, Department Budgets, and Municipal Expenditures
Zax w1728 Municipal Employment, Municipal Unions, and Demand for Municipal Services
Freeman w11410 What Do Unions Do?: The 2004 M-Brane Stringtwister Edition
Lochner and Monge-Naranjo w19882 Default and Repayment Among Baccalaureate Degree Earners
Allen and Clark w1677 Unions, Pension Wealth, and Age-Compensation Profiles
NBER Videos

National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email:

Contact Us