Agricultural Improvements and Access to Rail Transportation: The American Midwest as a Test Case, 1850-1860
During the 1850s, land in U.S. farms surged by more than 100 million acres while almost 50 million acres of land were transformed from their raw, natural state into productive farmland. The time and expense of transforming this land into a productive resource represented a significant fraction of domestic capital formation at the time and was an important contributor to American economic growth. Even more impressive, however, was the fact that almost half of these total net additions to cropland occurred in just seven Midwestern states which comprised barely less than one-eighth of the land area of the country at that time. Using a new GIS-based transportation database linked to county-level census, we estimate that at least a quarter (and possibly two-thirds or more) of this increase can be linked directly to the coming of the railroad to the region. Farmers responded to the shrinking transportation wedge and rising revenue productivity by rapidly expanding the area under cultivation and these changes, in turn, drove rising farm and land values.
We are grateful to David Levinson and workshop participants at Rutgers and Oberlin for helpful comments. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
(with Margo), “ The Impact of Access to Rail Transportation on Agricultural Improvement: The American Midwest as a Test Case, 1850 - 1860 ,” Journal of Transportation and Land Use , 4: 2 (2011).