NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
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Is Well-being U-Shaped over the Life Cycle?

David G. Blanchflower, Andrew Oswald

NBER Working Paper No. 12935
Issued in February 2007
NBER Program(s):Health Economics, Labor Studies

Recent research has argued that psychological well-being is U-shaped through the life cycle. The difficulty with such a claim is that there are likely to be omitted cohort effects (earlier generations may have been born in, say, particularly good or bad times). Hence the apparent U may be an artifact. Using data on approximately 500,000 Americans and Europeans, this paper designs a test that makes it possible to allow for different birth-cohorts. A robust U-shape of happiness in age is found. Ceteris paribus, well-being reaches a minimum, on both sides of the Atlantic, in people's mid to late 40s. The paper also shows that in the United States the well-being of successive birth-cohorts has gradually fallen through time. In Europe, newer birth-cohorts are happier.

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Document Object Identifier (DOI): 10.3386/w12935

Published: Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2008. "Is well-being U-shaped over the life cycle?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 66(8), pages 1733-1749, April. citation courtesy of

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