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About the Author(s)

Christopher “Kitt” Carpenter is the director of the NBER Health Economics Program, the E. Bronson Ingram Professor of Economics and University Distinguished Professor in Economics and Health Policy at Vanderbilt University, and the founder and director of Vanderbilt’s LGBTQ + Policy Lab.

Endnotes

1. The Economics of Aging,” Skinner J. Program Report, NBER Reporter, July 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
2. Excess Deaths in the United States during the First Year of COVID-19,” Ruhm C. NBER Working Paper 29503, November 2021.   Go to ⤴︎
3. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19: Evidence from Six Large Cities,” Benitez J, Courtemanche C, Yelowitz A. NBER Working Paper 27592, July 2020, and Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 3(4), October 2020, pp. 243–261.   Go to ⤴︎
4. The Great Unequalizer: Initial Health Effects of COVID-19 in the United States,” Alsan M, Chandra A, Simon K. NBER Working Paper 28958, June 2021, and Journal of Economic Perspectives 35(3), Summer 2021, pp. 25–46.   Go to ⤴︎
5. Mandated and Voluntary Social Distancing during the COVID-19 Epidemic: A Review,” Gupta S, Simon K, Wing C. NBER Working Paper 28139, November 2020, and Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Summer 2020, pp. 269–315.   Go to ⤴︎
6. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Policy Responses on Excess Mortality,” Agrawal V, Cantor J, Sood N, Whaley C. NBER Working Paper 28930, September 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
7. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Policy Response on Health Care Utilization: Evidence from County-Level Medical Claims and Cellphone Data,” Cantor J, Sood N, Bravata D, Pera M, Whaley C. NBER Working Paper 28131, November 2020, and Journal of Health Economics 82, March 2022, Article 102581. Go to ⤴︎
8. COVID-19 and Crime: Effects of Stay-at-Home Orders on Domestic Violence,” Bullinger L, Carr J, Packham A. NBER Working Paper 27667, August 2020, and American Journal of Health Economics 7(3), Summer 2021, pp. 249–280.   Go to ⤴︎
9. COVID-19 Restrictions Reduced Abortion Clinic Visits, Even in Blue States,” Andersen M, Bryan S, Slusky D. NBER Working Paper 28058, July 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
10. The Opioid Crisis, Health, Healthcare, and Crime: A Review of Quasi-experimental Economic Studies,” Maclean J, Mallatt J, Ruhm C, Simon K. NBER Working Paper 29983, April 2022. Go to ⤴︎
11. Origins of the Opioid Crisis and Its Enduring Impacts,” Alpert A, Evans W, Lieber E, Powell D. NBER Working Paper 26500, November 2019, and The Quarterly Journal of Economics 137(2), May 2022, pp. 1139–1179.   Go to ⤴︎
12. How Increasing Medical Access to Opioids Contributes to the Opioid Epidemic: Evidence from Medicare Part D,” Powell D, Pacula R, Taylor E. NBER Working Paper 21072, September 2016, and Journal of Health Economics 71, May 2020, Article 102286.   Go to ⤴︎
13. Supply-Side Drug Policy in the Presence of Substitutes: Evidence from the Introduction of Abuse-Deterrent Opioids,” Alpert A, Powell D, Pacula R. NBER Working Paper 23031, January 2017, and American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 10(4), November 2018, pp. 1–35.   Go to ⤴︎
14. How the Reformulation of OxyContin Ignited the Heroin Epidemic,” Evans W, Lieber E, Power P. NBER Working Paper 24475, April 2018, and Review of Economics and Statistics 101(1), March 2019, pp. 1–15.   Go to ⤴︎
15. The Effect of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs on Opioid Utilization in Medicare,” Buchmueller T, Carey C. NBER Working Paper 23148, February 2017, and American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 10(1), February 2018, pp. 77–112.   Go to ⤴︎
16. Mandatory Access Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Prescription Drug Abuse,” Dave D, Grecu A, Saffer H. NBER Working Paper 23537, June 2017, and Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 38(1), Winter 2019, pp. 181–209.   Go to ⤴︎
17. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs, Opioid Abuse, and Crime,” Dave D, Deza M, Horn B. NBER Working Paper 24975, January 2020, and Southern Economic Journal 87(3), Go to ⤴︎
18. Effect of Prescription Opioids and Prescription Opioid Control Policies on Infant Health,” Ziedan E, Kaestner R. NBER Working Paper 26749, November 2020.   Go to ⤴︎
19. The Public Health Effects of Legalizing Marijuana,” Anderson D, Rees D. NBER Working Paper 28647, April 2021.   Go to ⤴︎
20. Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana and Alcohol Use: The Devil Is in the Details,” Pacula R, Powell D, Heaton P, Sevigny E. NBER Working Paper 19302, August 2013, and Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 34(1), Winter 2015, pp. 7–31.   Go to ⤴︎
21. Do Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Addictions and Deaths Related to Painkillers?” Powell D, Pacula R, Jacobson M. NBER Working Paper 21345, August 2015, and Journal of Health Economics 58, March 2018, pp. 29–42.   Go to ⤴︎
22. Marijuana Legalization and Opioid Deaths,” Mathur N, Ruhm C. NBER Working Paper 29802, February 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
23. Is Recreational Marijuana a Gateway to Harder Drug Use and Crime?” Sabia J, Dave D, Alotaibi F, Rees D. NBER Working Paper 29038, August 2021.   Go to ⤴︎
24. Early Evidence on Recreational Marijuana Legalization and Traffic Fatalities,” Hansen B, Miller K, Weber C. NBER Working Paper 24417, March 2018, and Economic Inquiry 58(2), December 2018, pp. 547–568.   Go to ⤴︎
25. Marijuana Liberalization Policies and Perinatal Health,” Meinhofer A, Witman A, Hinde J, Simon K. NBER Working Paper 29296, September 2021, and Journal of Health Economics 80, December 2021, Article 102537.   Go to ⤴︎
26. The Economics of Tobacco Regulation: A Comprehensive Review,” DeCicca P, Kenkel D, Lovenheim M. NBER Working Paper 26923, April 2020, and Journal of Economic Literature 60(3), September 2022, pp. 883–970.   Go to ⤴︎
27. Do State Tobacco 21 Laws Work?” Bryan C, Hansen B, McNichols D, Sabia J. NBER Working Paper 28173, April 2021.   Go to ⤴︎
28. Intended and Unintended Effects of Banning Menthol Cigarettes,” Carpenter C, Nguyen H. NBER Working Paper 26811, February 2020, and Journal of Law and Economics 64(3), August 2021, pp. 629–650.   Go to ⤴︎
29. Intended and Unintended Effects of E-cigarette Taxes on Youth Tobacco Use,” Abouk R, Courtemanche C, Dave D, Feng B, Friedman A, Maclean J, Pesko M, Sabia J, Safford S. NBER Working Paper 29216, October 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
30. The Effects of E-cigarette Taxes on E-cigarette Prices and Tobacco Product Sales: Evidence from Retail Panel Data,” Cotti C, Courtemanche C, Maclean J, Nesson E, Pesko M, Tefft N. NBER Working Paper 26724, July 2022, and Journal of Health Economics 86, December 2022, Article 102676.   Go to ⤴︎
31. Regression Discontinuity Evidence on the Effectiveness of the Minimum Legal E-cigarette Purchase Age,” DeSimone J, Grossman D, Ziebarth N. NBER Working Paper 30614, October 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
32. Does E-cigarette Advertising Encourage Adult Smokers to Quit?” Dave D, Dench D, Grossman M, Kenkel D, Saffer H. NBER Working Paper 24277, February 2018, and Journal of Health Economics 68, December 2019, Article 102227.   Go to ⤴︎
33. Capacity Strain and Racial Disparities in Hospital Mortality,” Singh M, Venkataramani A. NBER Working Paper 30380, August 2022.   Go to ⤴︎
34. Cigarette Taxes and Smoking among Sexual Minority Adults,” Carpenter C, Sansone D. NBER Working Paper 26692, January 2020, and Journal of Health Economics 79, September 2021, Article 102492.   Go to ⤴︎
35. Effects of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Mandate on Health Insurance Coverage for Individuals in Same-Sex Couples,” Carpenter C, Gonzales Jr G, McKay T, Sansone D. NBER Working Paper 26978, April 2020, and Demography 58(5), October 2021, pp. 1897–1929.     Go to ⤴︎

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