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About the Author(s)


Joshua Gans is a professor of strategic management and holder of the Jeffrey S. Skoll Chair of Technical Innovation and Entrepreneurship at the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, with a cross appointment in the Department of Economics. Since 2013, he has been area coordinator of strategic management; he also is chief economist of the University of Toronto's Creative Destruction Lab.

Prior to 2011, Gans was the foundation professor of management (information economics) at the Melbourne Business School, University of Melbourne; prior to that he was at the School of Economics, University of New South Wales. In 2011, he was a visiting researcher at Microsoft Research in New England.

Gans holds a Ph.D. from Stanford University and an honors degree in economics from the University of Queensland. In 2012, he was named a research associate of the NBER, where he is involved in the Productivity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Program.

At Rotman, Gans teaches M.B.A. and commerce students network and digital market strategy. He is a coauthor with Stephen King and Robin Stonecash of the Australasian edition of Greg Mankiw's Principles of Economics, and lead author of Core Economics for Managers, Finishing the Job, and Parentonomics. Most recently, he has written Information Wants to be Shared and The Disruption Dilemma.

Gans specializes in the nature of technological competition and innovation, economic growth, publishing economics, industrial organization, and regulatory economics. He has published on these subjects in the American Economic Review, Journal of Political Economy, RAND Journal of Economics, and others.


Fiona Murray is the William Porter (1967) Professor of Entrepreneurship, the associate dean for innovation at MIT's Sloan School of Management, and co-director of the MIT Innovation Initiative. She is also a member of the British Prime Minister's Council on Science and Technology and an NBER research associate.

Murray holds a B.A. and M.A. in chemistry from Merton College, University of Oxford, and an M.S. in engineering sciences and a Ph.D. in applied sciences from Harvard University.

Her research is focused on the economics and sociology of innovation and entrepreneurship. Much of her work evaluates how policies and programs shape the commercialization of science, and how they can positively impact the role of women in entrepreneurship. She is also interested in the organizational economics of science and in how changes in science funding shape the ways in which laboratories and inter-lab collaborations are structured.

Murray has done extensive work with entrepreneurs, governments, large corporations, and philanthropists designing and evaluating policies and programs that shape vibrant innovation ecosystems, such as prizes, competitions, accelerators, patent licensing rules, and proof of concept funding.

She has published in diverse journals: Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Management Science, New England Journal of Medicine, American Journal of Sociology, Organization Science, and Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.


1. F R. Merton, "The Matthew Effect in Science," Science, 159(3810), 1968, pp. 56–63.   Go to ⤴︎
2. J. S. Gans and F. Murray, "Credit History: The Changing Nature of Scientific Credit," in A. Jaffe and B. Jones eds., The Changing Frontier: Rethinking Science and Innovation Policy, Chicago, University of Chicago, 2014, pp. 107–31.   Go to ⤴︎
3. M. Bikard, F. Murray, and J. S. Gans, "Exploring Tradeoffs in the Organization of Scientific Work: Collaboration and Scientific Rewards," NBER Working Paper 18958, April 2013, and Management Science, 61(7), 2015, pp. 1473–95.   Go to ⤴︎
4. J. S. Gans and F. Murray, "Markets for Scientific Attribution," NBER Working Paper 20677, November 2014. Go to ⤴︎


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